SOC3401Test2Stsudyguide.docx - SOC3401 Introduction to Sociological Research Study Guide Test 2 This study guide is not exhaustive It is simply an aid

SOC3401Test2Stsudyguide.docx - SOC3401 Introduction to...

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SOC3401: Introduction to Sociological ResearchStudy Guide: Test 2This study guide is not exhaustive. It is simply an aid to help you prepare for the upcoming tests. Per the syllabus, the test can cover all information from the textbook, lectures, and labs.Key Terms from Test 1 that may reappearQuantitativeResearch: Ask about relationships between variablesSurvey: involve asking questions, often close-ended, of a relatively large and randomly selected group of peopleExperiment: involve researchers introducing changes into the environment in order to evaluate the effects of those changesData: information recorded from observation; may be numerical or nonnumeric formDeductiveLogic: reasoning in which the conclusion necessarily follows if the evidence is true. Hypothesis: is an expected relationship between phenomena derived from theory and tested with dataTheory: a logically interconnected set of propositions that explains the relationship between concepts.CausalRelationship: a relationship in which it is theorized that changes in one variable produce or bring about changes in another variableConcept: terms scientists use to group together phenomena that have important things in commonVariable: a measured concept that varies over cases over time within a given caseControlVariables: a variable that is not allowed to vary is otherwise held constant during the course of data collection or analysisDependentVariable: outcome to be explainedIndependentVariable: presumed caused of dependent variableInterveningVariable: a variable that is intermediate between two other variables in a casual relationship;it is an effect of one and a cause of the other(Non-)Spurious Relationship: StatisticalSignificance: the likelihood that the results of a study, such as an association between variables, could have occurred by chanceUnit of Analysis: entities that are studied which are described and compared in terms of variables e.g., people, groups, organizations, nation statesNull hypothesis: the hypothesis, associated with test of statistical significance, that an observed relationship is due to chanceAssociation: Tests of statistical significance determine whether an association could have occurred by chanceDirectionofinfluence: Makes the timing of observations an important element of research designManipulationOperations: involves changing categories or values of a variable (applies to the independent variable)MeasuredOperations: estimate existing values or categoriesNominal: merely labels variable categories, should be exhaustive and mutually exclusiveOrdinal: numbers indicate rank orderInterval: numbers indicate distance between casesRatio: has an absolute zero pointExhaustive and mutually exclusive: all possible values/categories of a variable available so that every case can be classified and that each case can be placed in one and only one category of a variableKey Terms (Multistage) Cluster sampling: independent samples drawn from each cluster or natural grouping
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  • Spring '19
  • researcher, internal validity, stratified random sampling

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