lab_manual_Phys101.pdf - Physics 101 Lab Manual W A...

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Physics 101 Lab Manual W. A. Atkinson Southern Illinois University, Carbondale Physics Department 2003
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2 Copyright c 2002, 2003 by William Atkinson. All rights reserved. Permis- sion is granted for students registered in Physics 101 at Southern Illinois Uni- versity to print this manual for personal use. Reproductions for other purposes are not permitted.
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Contents How to Write Labs i 0.1 What You Need to Bring to the Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 0.2 The Pre-Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 0.3 Structure of the Labs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 0.4 How to Draw Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii 1 Pre-Lab Questions 1 1.1 Observations of Venus and Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Electrostatics and Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Electrical Resistance, Power, and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.6 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.7 Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 Observations of Venus and Mars 17 2.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2 The Earth’s Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Phases of the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4 The Phases and Orbital Motion of Venus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.5 Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.6 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3 Diffusion 27 3.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.2 Diffusion of Ink in Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3 Microscopic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.4 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4 Electrostatics and Electricity 37 4.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.2 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.3 The Concept of “Ground” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.4 Conductors and Insulators: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3
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4 CONTENTS 4.5 Simple Circuits: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.6 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5 Resistance, Power & Energy 45 5.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.2 A Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.3 Building the Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.4 The Measuring the Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.4.1 The resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.4.2 The lightbulb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5.5 How much is a lot? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.6 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6 Electromagnetism 53 6.1 Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2 The Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.3 Current Generation by a Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.3.1 The magnet, the coil, and the galvanometer . . . . . . . . 58 6.4 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 7 Quantum Mechanics I: Atomic Spectra 61 7.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.2 The spectroscope and the visible spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.3 Spectra of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 7.4 Measuring Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7.4.1 Calibrating the Spectroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7.4.2 Measuring Unknown Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 7.5 Bohr’s atomic model and Plack’s constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7.6 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 8 Quantum Mechanics II: Radioactivity 69 8.1 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 8.2 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 8.2.1 Kinds of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 8.3 The Geiger Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8.4 The Cloud Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.4.1 Operating the cloud chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.4.2 Optimizing the operating conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.5 Summary & Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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How to Write Labs 0.1 What You Need to Bring to the Lab You will need to bring the following to the labs: Pencils and an eraser, A 30 cm (12 inch) ruler, A calculator, Loose-leaf paper on which to write the lab. 0.2 The Pre-Lab Each lab has a set of pre-laboratory exercises which must be completed before you arrive at the lab. Pre-lab questions will be graded along with the labs. 0.3 Structure of the Labs The first page of your lab should include the title your name and student number your lab partner’s name During the labs, you will be required to answer questions, draw sketches, make graphs and tables of data and write a short summary. Questions are to be answered on loose-leaf paper, unless stated otherwise.
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