test 2 review

test 2 review - /Agriculture and Food Production What...

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/Agriculture and Food Production What plants and animals feed the world? 4 main crops : Wheat, rice, corn and potatoes 2 out 3 people survive on grains As income rises so does grain consumption (indirectly) Animals? Cattle have big ecological footprints How have the green revolutions increased food production? First green revolution Monocultures (large areas w/only 1 crop) and high-yield varieties Fertilizers, pesticides, fossil fuels( tractors, pumps) and water Increased intensity and frequency Second green revolution Fast-growing dwarf varieties Tropical developed countries Crops expensive to begin w/ How much has food production increased? Since 1950 global grain production has been rising, but rate of growth has slowed Since 1978 grain production has lagged behind population growth How serious are undernutrition, malnutrition, and overnutrition?
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Undernutrition/ Malnutrition -marasmus -kwashiorkor Overnutrition -obesity Do we produce enough food to feed the world’s people? Good news : we produce more than enough food Bad news : food is not distributed equally Poverty hunger and malnutrition Pockets of poverty, hunger, and malnutrition? Is increasing crop yields the answer? Biotechnology and the expansion of green revolution technologies to new parts of the world?? Is cultivating more land the answer? Agricultural expansion is often overestimated Most land is marginal land Most of the world’s potential agricultural land is in dry areas Increasing food security: Technical options (biotechnology) Increasing food security: Technical options (agroecology)
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Agroecology : A new paradigm? Industrial farming Increasing food security: Political-Economic options (Monetarists—government intervention is terrible because it misallocates global availability of food) Derived from neo-classical economic theory Government intervention causes overproduction in some countries and depresses production in others = badly misallocated global availability of food Increasing food security: Political-Economic options (Structuralists— hate unequal land tenure system-- land reform) Emphasizes that low productivity is related to the land tenure system Land reform has been the principal policy prescription Increasing food security: Political-Economic options (Reformists-hate society—down with social inequality ) Emphasize a need for change across the entire society Social inequality is the root cause of agricultural stagnation and hunger Increasing food security: Political-Economic options ( World systems—hate the world) Also known as dependency perspectives See the same problems as the structuralists and reformists, but see them as a result of an overarching global structure(s) of dependency and inequality Traditional agriculture:
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2008 for the course GEOG 1101 taught by Professor Connor during the Fall '08 term at UGA.

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test 2 review - /Agriculture and Food Production What...

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