Assignment 12.1 Workbook Nurs 611.docx - Running head WORKBOOK 12.1 ASSIGNMENT Workbook 12.1 Assignment Andrea Allen Maryville University NURS 611

Assignment 12.1 Workbook Nurs 611.docx - Running head...

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Running head: WORKBOOK 12.1 ASSIGNMENT 1 Workbook 12.1 Assignment Andrea Allen Maryville University NURS 611 Professor Lehr April 8, 2018
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ASSIGNMENT 12.1 WORKBOOK 2 Workbook 12.1 Assignment 1. Reproductive maturation-p.770-771 involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the central nervous system, and the endocrine system. A sequential series of hormonal events promotes sexual maturation as puberty approaches. About 1 year before puberty in girls, there is an increase in frequency and amplitude of nocturnal pulses of gonadotropin secretion, LH, and FSH and an increased response in the pituitary to GnRH. This stimulates gonadal maturation (gonadarche) with estradiol secretion in girls and testosterone secretion in boys. Estradiol causes breast development (thelarche), maturation of the reproductive organs (vagina, uterus, ovaries), and fat deposit in hips in girls. Estrogen and increased production of growth factors cause rapid skeletal growth in both boys and girls. Testosterone causes growth of the testes, scrotum, and penis. A positive feedback loop is created with gonadotropins stimulating the gonads to produce more sex hormones. The most important hormonal effects occur in the gonads. In males the testes begin to produce mature sperm that can fertilize an ovum. Male puberty is complete with the first ejaculation that contains mature sperm. In females, the ovaries begin to release mature ova. Female puberty is complete with the first ovulatory menstrual period; however, this can take up to 1 to 2 years after menarche. 2. Adrenarche-p.771 is the increased production of adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, which is converted to testosterone and estrogen) prior to puberty, which occurs in both sexes, and is exhibited by axillary and pubic hair growth and body odor. Puberty is complete when an individual is capable of reproduction. In addition to pregnancy the obvious manifestation of female reproductive functioning is menstrual bleeding (the menses), which starts with menarche (first menstruation) and ends with menopause (cessation of menstrual flow for 1 year). 3. Estrogen-p.776-781, 783 is a generic term for three similar hormones: estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estradiol (E 2 ) is the most potent and plentiful of the three and is principally produced (95%) by the ovaries (ovarian follicle and corpus luteum). Androgens are converted to estrone in
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