STATE BUILDING - STATE BUILDING Before the nation state...

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STATE BUILDING Before the nation state City states (e.g., German “free cities”) Large states with bureaucracies Typical state in 17 th century Europe—more normal being a conglomeration of territories, more like Hapsburgs rather than France. Spanish Hapsburgs and Austrian Hapsburgs, two branches of one family ruled Spain, Sardinia, lower Europe, parts of Austria. The key issue of those nation states was to preserve the family line. State building was costing on resources. Need to be able to wage a small war. Processes of state building included persecution reduce the autonomy of those who could challenge the regent’s authority. Mercenary soldiers- paid soldiers Needed to put larger and larger armies together Armies in Europe developed conscription, but mercenary soldiers continued to be necessary and commonly used. The impact of the thirty years war (1618-1648)- awestruck at the amount of destruction. “last of the religious wars”. The war started along religious lines, but at the end a lot of the different religion states were allied to each other because it was profitable. Resulted in the death of, through starvation, death, etc. of the death of a third of the European population Also called for the innovation of war rules Inspired a new commitment for a new international balance of power International law and international relations (peace of Westphalia (1648) —became a model for later more famous peace treaties. Wanted to stop superfluous warfare from happening again. Wanted some sort of stable balance of power. New commitment to the notion of the balance of power. Conduct of war after 1648- resulted in fewer casualties and atrocities. Battle of Nordligen—20/58 thousand died in one battle in thirty years war. 1690s- Oudenarde- 8/160 thousand died. Death toll figures diminished. 40-60 to 7-12 percent casualty rates. Cultural reaction (e.g. Rubens and Jacques Callot- the hanging--tree)— painters made a living on painting kings, regents on battlefields on horseback, following the early 1600s wars, they began series of the horrors of war. Artistic responses to the war. State-buildings Incentives: order and military-administrative growth—monarchs, central governments wanting to bring the country under their control. Wanted to bring the nobility under the control of the royal monarchy. Facts and figures on European armies—more and better tax collectors than they had before—better and more honest. Paying for expensive wars required thorough tax collecting.
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Began having a huge increase of armies. Went from 16 th century to 17 th increase of about 20 thousand to 150. some claim late louie 14 th had about 400 thousand. Probably around 200 thousand Obstacles: nobles—ruled as they wanted to because they were not as controlled by the monarchy. Were far away. Types of nobles: soldiers/landowners; officeholders
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2008 for the course HIST 2320 taught by Professor Soper during the Spring '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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STATE BUILDING - STATE BUILDING Before the nation state...

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