Housing FInance Mechanisms in Indonesia.pdf

Housing FInance Mechanisms in Indonesia.pdf - HOUSING...

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UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SET TLEMENTS PROGRAMME Nairobi, 2008 HOUSING FINANCE MECHANISMS in Indonesia
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ii H o u s i n g f i n a n c e m e c h a n i s m s i n I n d o n e s i a The Human Settlements Finance Systems Series Housing Finance Mechanisms in Indonesia First published in Nairobi in 2008 by UN-HABITAT. Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2008 HS/1011/08 ISBN: 978-92-1-132022-0 (series) ISBN: 978-92-1-131991-0 Disclaimer The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concern- ing the delimitation of its frontiers of boundaries. Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations Hu- man Settlements Programme, the United Nations, or its Member States. Excerpts may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. Acknowledgements: Managed and Edited by Xing Quan Zhang. Guidance and/or comments by Anna Tibaijuka, Inga Bjork-Klevby, Oyebanji Oyeyinka, Fred Neto and Don Okpala. Draft by Marja C. Hoek- Smit. Editing by Ingrid Uys and Roman Rollnick. Design and Layout by Irene Juma.
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iii H o u s i n g f i n a n c e m e c h a n i s m s i n I n d o n e s i a At the dawn of this new urban era, UN- HABITAT research shows that by 2030, two-thirds of humanity will be living in towns and cities. We thus live at a time of unprecedented, rapid, irreversible urbanisa- tion. The cities growing fastest are those of the developing world. And the fastest growing neighbourhoods are the slums. Indeed, the global number of slum dwellers is now at or close to the 1 billion mark. Excessive levels of urbanization in re- lation to the economic growth have resulted in high levels of urban poverty and rapid ex- pansion of unplanned urban settlements and slums, which are characterized by a lack of basic infrastructure and services, overcrowd- ing and substandard housing conditions. Yet housing and the services that should be provided with it are one of the most basic hu- man needs. It is enshrined in various inter- national instruments, including the Habitat Agenda . And reducing the number of slum dwellers around the world is a cornerstone of the Millennium Development Goals set to fight poverty around the world. So if we fail to achieve the Goals in towns and cities, we will simply fail to achieve them at all. It was with this crisis in mind that the Unit- ed Nations General Assembly decided in its resolution of 26 February 2002 to transform United Nations Commission on Human Settlements into a fully pledged programme. The General Assembly in its resolution called on UN-HABITAT to take “urgent steps to ensure a better mobilization of financial re- sources at all levels, to enhance the imple- mentation of the Habitat Agenda , particularly in developing countries.” It also stressed “the commitments of member states to promote
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