Biol 2402 The Endocrine System Lecture Outline I. Introduction and Functions of the Endocrine System By the end of this section you should be able to: 1. Define each of the following terms: endocrine system, endocrine gland, hormone, target organ/target cell, receptor, and specificity.2. Describe the major functions of the endocrine system. 3. Compare the endocrine and nervous systems, including the following: substances released by each, the location of the target cells, amount of time it takes for the neurotransmitter/hormone to cause its effects, and how long the effects of the neurotransmitter/hormone last.4. Discuss how the endocrine and nervous systems interact. Describe an example of how the nervous system can override normal endocrine controls.5. Describe the chemical classification of hormones and the relationship between chemical class and synthesis, storage, release, transport, half-life, receptor location, and mechanism of action at the target cell.6. Describe the major mechanisms of hormone action.7. Compare the role of humoral stimuli, hormonal stimuli, and neural stimuli in the control of hormone release. Give examples of each. Describe the role of positive and negative feedback in controlling hormone release.8. Discuss the role of tropic hormones in controlling other endocrine glands.9. Describe each of the following ways in which hormones can interact and provide an example of each: synergism, permissiveness, antagonism. Compare up regulation and down regulation.10. Describe factors that affect the plasma concentration of a hormone. 11. Describe the transport of hormones in the blood. Give specific examples of hormones transported by each mode. If a binding protein is involved, discuss the significance of the ratio of free hormone to bound hormone. 12. Explain amplification of hormonal effect at the target cell.You learned in AP I that the nervous system is a major regulator of physiological functions. Its targets respond quickly and provide short-term changes in physiological processes.A. FunctionsThe endocrine system is also a major regulator, allowing organ systems to function in an integrated way in order to maintain homeostasis. Changes brought about by the endocrine system generally take longer to produce and are sustained for longer periods than those elicited by the nervous system.The endocrine system has these major roles:1. regulate waterand electrolyte balance2. induce changes that allow the body to cope with [physical] stress3. promote growthand development4. control reproduction5. regulates hormone production 6. with ANS, regulates circulatoryand digestive systems Spring 2018 Page 1 of 23
Biol 2402 The Endocrine System Lecture Outline B. Endocrine glands are any cells or groups of cells that secrete hormones , chemical messengers that are released into the interstitial fluid before diffusing into capillaries - the smallest of all blood vessels.
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