CHEMISTRY
Grade 11 Review Notes Package (2013).docx

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SCH4U – Grade 11 Review Grade 11 Review For SCH4U 1. Significant Digits Zero as a Significant Digit : Zero is significant ONLY if it is between two significant figures, OR if it is to the right of a significant figure AND to the right of the decimal. Egs. 0.0018 2 sig. fig. 1.8 x 10 -3 18 000 2 sig. fig. 1.8 x 10 4 18.00 4 sig. fig. 1.800 x 10 1 Multiplication and Division : The answer to the calculation will have the same number of significant digits as the measurement with the fewest significant digits. Eg. 0.01208 0.0236 = 0.51186... but 0.0236 has only 3 sig. fig. therefore = 0.512 or 5.12 x 10 -1 Addition and Subtraction : The answer to the calculation will have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures. Eg. 0.12 + 1.6 + 10.976 = 12.696 but 0.12 and 1.6 each have 2 sig. fig. and 1.6 has only 1 decimal place therefore = 12.7 or 1.27 x 10 1 2. Calculating Average Atomic Masses from Isotopic Abundances Example: Chlorine is a mixture of 2 isotopes ▪ 75.77% of the atoms are 35 Cl (34.9689μ) ▪ 24.23% of the atoms are 37 Cl (36.9659μ) What is the average atomic mass of chlorine? Solution: 0.7577 x 34.9689μ = 26.50μ 0.2423 x 36.9659μ = 8.957μ Total mass of average atom = 26.50μ + 8.957μ = 35.46μ 3. Atomic Structure X Z A A = mass # = # of protons + # of neutrons Z = atomic # = # protons Isotopes = same # of protons, different # of neutrons Page 1 of 10

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SCH4U – Grade 11 Review Ions = same # of protons and neutrons, different # of electrons 4. Bonding Atoms will bond if their new configuration provides equal or greater stability. This is often due to the acquiring of a “full” valence electron shell Octet = 8 valence electrons Duplet = 2 valence electrons Ionic Bonding Covalent / Molecular Bonding Between: Metal and Non-metal Two or more non-metals Mechanism: Metal loses e - cation Non-metal gains e - anion Electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal Valence electrons are shared (up to three shared pairs) Example: lithium + chlorine lithium chloride Li + Cl LiCl Li + Cl [ Li ] + + [ Cl ] - bromine + chlorine bromine chloride
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