15Eukaryotes.docx - Eukaryotes and the Evolution of Multicellularity 20 March 2018 READINGS Freeman pages pp 539-543 546-551 556-558 S5 I

15Eukaryotes.docx - Eukaryotes and the Evolution of...

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Eukaryotes and the Evolution of Multicellularity 20 March 2018 READINGS: Freeman pages pp. 539-543, 546-551, 556-558, S5 I. Characteristics shared by all Eukaryotes (Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals) A. Multiple molecules of DNA= chromosomes with associated proteins B. Membrane bound organelles (e.g. nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids) C. Flagella and cilia made of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement D. Reproduction is variable: some reproduce asexually via mitosis while others reproduce sexually via meiosis E. Nutritional mode is variable: Many species are photosynthetic while others obtain carbon compounds by ingesting food or parasitizing other organisms. II. Evolutionary Modifications in Eukaryotes A. Nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum likely arose as invaginations of the cell membrane in prokaryotic ancestor B. Mitochondria and plastids evolved by ENDOSYMBIOSIS a. Organelles were independent prokaryotes that became incorporated in eukaryotic cells and developed a mutually beneficial relationship C.
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