Phys- Heart - Cardiovascular System Arteries: carrying...

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Cardiovascular System
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Arteries: carrying blood away from the heart. Veins: carrying blood back toward the heart. Blood in pulmonary arteries is deoxygenated, in pulmonary veins is oxygenated. Blood in systemic veins is deoxygenated, in systemic arteries is oxygenated. The arterioles, capillaries, and venules are called the microcirculation
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Autonomic innervation of heart 1. Parasympathetic (vagus nerve) only innervate the atria. The NT is Ach and the receptor is muscarinic receptor. 2. Sympathetic innervate both atria and ventricles. The NT is norepinephrine and the receptor is beta-adrenergic receptor. Epinephrine from blood binds to same receptor and exerts same action.
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Mechanism of sympathetic effects on cardiac muscle cell contractility
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Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood (in Liter) the heart pumps per minute. Is determined by heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV) that is the blood volume ejected by a ventricular contraction. CO = HR x SV
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The tunica intima delimits the vessel wall towards the lumen of the vessel and comprises its endothelial lining (typically simple, squamous) and associated connective tissue . Beneath the connective tissue, we find the internal elastic lamina , which delimits the tunica intima from the tunica media . The tunica media is formed by a layer of circumferential smooth muscle and variable amounts of connective tissue . A second layer of elastic fibers, the external elastic lamina , is located beneath the smooth muscle. It delimits the tunica media from the
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2008 for the course PHYS 001 taught by Professor Claar,rodgerleon during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Phys- Heart - Cardiovascular System Arteries: carrying...

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