HI 248 – The Nazi’s Weimar Ideological racism How did the Nazi’s get into power? Why did German democracy fail? - Economic chaos, political instability o But all Europe experiences inflation, disruption - Military defeat o But Italy wins the war: Mussolini takes power in 1922 o 1918 – many food shortages and no coal, so can’t make the trains run, fascists made order, Mussolini made the trains run on time The Roman Salute – hand up After the victory of liberalism through arms The triumph of liberalism in peace Why did Weimar last so long? I. The Impact of Military Defeat on Germany a. Denial of defeat on the right b. Territorial losses c. Reparations d. Economic turbulence e. Political instability f. Anti-democratic sentiment Central Powers – can’t win prolonged war Advantages: internal lines, denser railroads Russian, French, British-main powers Countries are exporting domestic problems Dense trade networks around Austro-Hungary Disadvantages: industrial production, naval power Competition over sea power Central powers • Disadvantages: population/land power Solution: knock Russia out first, they turn West Avoid two fronts by invading France through neutral Belgium Hoping the Russians don’t mobilize quickly Victory in the East
Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) Stalemate in West: Trench warfare But Germany cannot win a war of attrition cannot produce and cannot feed its people To compensate: Modern means in the fight for anti-modern ends 1) Propaganda/censorship a. Merchants (British) against Heroes (Germans) 2) Military dictatorship – (1916-18) under Hindenburg 3) War economy Losing on the home front Hungry German workers waiting in line for food Desperate gamble: Spring Offensive (Kaiserschlact) March – June 1918 Large territorial gains Stosstruppen (shock troops) Sturmtruppen (storm troopers) Allied losses: 537,000 German losses: 509,000 German army exhausted, exposed Troops taught to be fearless – 18-year-old men, well trained, but still killed Military and Political Collapse June 1918: Foreign ministry says sue for peace July-September: British maneuvers weaken German lines Sept-Nov: concerted allied attacks October 29: German admiralty calls for sortie, sailors mutiny, spreads to rest of navy, army November 9: Kaiser abdicates, Republic declared – creation of Weimar Denial Von Hindenburg: Dolchstosslegende = “stab in the back” legend Women, socialists, Jews – always bad Losses: Territory and Treasure Treaty of Versailles 1919 Provisions: Austria, Sudetenland, Polish corridor, Danzig-Gdansk All industries in Sudetenland, so don’t give it to the Germans.
Lecture 3: Weimar Continued Nazis as a response to war, defeat, and democracy - Denial of defeat on the right - Reality of defeat: Territorial losses Reparation Hindenburg “Stab in the back” Territorial losses (reality of defeat): blaming socialists, women, and Jews Losses: Territory and Treasure Reparations stem from war guilt clause Treaty of Versailles 1919 War Guilt Clause Army: 100,000 soldiers Reparations: announced in 1921 = 132 billion gold marks Only pay ca. 19-20 bln Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) Says Germans are the lone aggressors, want to make sure to limit the size of the army.
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- Summer '19
- Adolf Hitler, Nazi Party, Nazism, Weimar Republic