Fluid & Electrolytes Study Guide 1. Differentiate between osmosis, diffusion, filtration, and active transport. *Osmosis is the process by which fluids moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration; the process continues until the solute concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane *Diffusion is the natural tendency of a substance to move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. •it occurs through the random movement of ions and molecules • Examples of diffusion are the exchange of Oxygen and carbon dioxide between the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli and the tendency it sodium to move from the ECF compartment, where the sodium is high, to the ICF, where its concentration is low. *filtration •hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries tends to filter fluid out of the intravascular compartment into the interstitial fluids • movement of water and solutes occurs from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of lobed to the interstitial fluid; in this instance the hydrostatic pressure results from the pumping of the heart. (Page 239) Active Transport implies that the energy must be expended for the movement to occur against a concentration gradient. 2. Describe the role of the kidneys, lungs, and endocrine glands in regulating the body’s fluid composition and volume Daily urine rule(1ml/kg/h), normally filter 180 L of plasma every day and excrete 1-2 L of urine for an adult. The kidney act both autonomously and react to messengers, aldosterone, (ADH). The major function of the kidney to maintain normal fluid balance is- ● Regulation of ECF volume and osmolality by selective retention and excretion of body fluid. ● Regulation of normal electrolytes levels in the ECF by selective electrolyte retention and excretion. ● Regulation of pH of the ECF by retention of hydrogen ions. ● Excretion of metabolic waste and toxic substances. lungs- Daily water vapor(insensible loss) 300 ml and even more if the pt has cont coughing or hyperpnea(abn deep resp) endocrine glands- ● Pituitary gland-releases ADH(ADH made in the hypothalamus) as needed to conserve water. ADH maintains the osmotic pressure of the cells by controlling the retention or excretion of water by the kidneys and by regulating blood volume. ● Adrenal gland- Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid secreted has a profound effect on fluid balance. Increased aldosterone causes sodium retention(causing water retention) and
potassium loss. Decreased Aldosterone causes sodium and water loss and potassium retention. Cortisol, another adrenocortical hormone has less mineralocorticoid effect. However when given in large quantities (administered as corticosteroid therapy) can cause sodium and potassium retention.
Want to read all 6 pages?
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 6 pages?
- Spring '17
- mrs. Vargovich
- Sodium, muscle weakness, loop diuretics, Hyperchloremia