Exam Practice Cultural Perspectives.pptx

Exam Practice Cultural Perspectives.pptx - Exam Practice...

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Exam Practice HRM 2011: Culture Perspectives
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Exam Practice Questions Should multinational corporations adapt their practices according to the particular cultural contexts where they have operations? What is ‘cultural perspective’ and describe how we can measure the differences between different cultures. Use at least one country’s culture in your answer
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COMPLEXITIES OF IHRM Responsibility for a greater number, and complexity, of activities, including managing expatriation A broadening of expertise to include knowledge of foreign countries, employment laws and so on Involvement with a greater mix of employees Coping with external influences and multiple cultures Greater involvement in employees’ lives, particularly in the case of expatriation Ability to manage difficulties and risk, particularly if a subsidiary is being established in a developing country Hollinshead, G. (2010) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. McGraw-Hill: London. (p. 4) 3
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INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE TRAJECTORIES International Trajectory The study of human resource policies and practices in multinational enterprises Involves strategic considerations in formulating policies (e.g. recruitment, training and reward) affecting the staffing of headquarters and subsidiaries in international enterprises A central focus of this approach has been on expatriation Hollinshead, G. (2010) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. McGraw-Hill: London. (p. 7) 4
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Comparative Trajectory The investigation of embedded contexts, policies and practices in specific national and regional domains Concerns ‘terrains’ of organizational and employment structures and practices as conditioned by socio-political and economic factors INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE TRAJECTORIES (CONT.) Hollinshead, G. (2010) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. McGraw-Hill: London. (p. 7) 5
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LEVELS OF ANALYSIS OF IHRM Global Regional National Organisational Hollinshead, G. (2010) International and Comparative Human Resource Management. McGraw-Hill: London. (p. 9) 6
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WHAT IS CULTURE? “... a pattern of basic assumptions – invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.” 7 Schein, E. H. (1984) Coming to a new awareness of organisation al culture. Sloan Management Review. Winter: 3-16. (p. 9)
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8 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Artifacts Espoused values Basic Underlying Assumptions KNOWN TO OTHERS UNKNOWN TO OTHERS IMPACT Edgars Schein’s three levels of culture (Lucas et al , 2006:97)
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CULTURE AS AN “ONION” 9
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Attributes of Culture: It is learned Culture is shared It is transgenerational It is symbolic It is patterned It is adaptive 10
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HIGH AND LOW CONTEXT CULTURES 11 Edward T. Hall Context refers to ‘the information that surrounds an event; it is inextricably bound up with the meaning of that event’
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