Presentation-1.pptx - Factors and Difficulties of Social...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Factors and Difficulties of Social and Emotional Development in Preschool Aged Students Kathryn Charleston Liberty University March 16, 2018 ABSTRACT This study looks look in depth at the factors that contribute to why students are entering preschool lacking necessary social and emotional skills needed to be successful in their classrooms. Preschool aged children come into preschool from various backgrounds and experiences. Some children are flourishing in social environments while others struggle to complete small activities with other children. The children who struggle with this lack of social skills often exhibit negative and aggressive anti-social behavior such as tattling, hitting, biting, and kicking. Some students have social skills that are underdeveloped and find it very difficult to gain confidence and increase their skills in this area. This problem exists in preschool classrooms for many reasons including overprotective parents, under prepared teachers, limited exposure to people and children, a lack of money for schooling, and personal attributes or feelings. This research will help determine the various factors that affect the social development of young children and determine why some children are more socially developed than others at the preschool level. The Purpose of this Study Pre-school is an important time in a child’s life. Preschool is where children develop and strengthen their foundation of social skills. They learn how to use their words instead of hands, they learn how to share and take turns, how to express their emotions, and they learn problem solving skills. Some students, however, take longer than others to fully understand how to thrive in a social environment. The purpose of this research is to determine the various factors that affect the social and emotional development of young children and determine why some children are more socially developed than others at the preschool level. Research Questions What are the factors that affect social and emotional development in preschool aged children? How can the social and emotional skills of preschool children be improved? Definitions of Key Terms Social and emotional development –The ways in which a child grows and learns. This includes a child's experiences, feelings, interactions, and relationships. Interpersonal and intrapersonal characteristics. Self-Regulation-The ability to control and manage ones behaviors and thoughts Social Cognitive theory –Founded by Albert Bandura and is founded on the belief that people can learn by observing others and that learners can acquire new behaviors and knowledge by observing and mimicking. Review of Literature This literature review focuses on a lack in social skills of preschool aged children. This lack of social and emotional development is creating an unnecessary amount of tattling and is the result of a large amount of aggressive and inappropriate social behavior. There are some students who have been in day care before and understand how to properly deal with social situations which involve working or playing with their peers. There are also some who come into my classroom having never been around other children before. These students do not know how to talk with other children and communicate their feelings. They struggle with how to play appropriately or how to physically interact with other children. The lack of social skills often causes physical altercations, arguments and hurt feelings between the children. The themes that have been found during research are: learning through play, the parents roles, self-regulation, teacher training and education, factors that affect social and emotional development, how to measure development, the difficulties found in the preschool classroom, and what is being done to improve social and emotional development Literature Summary Factors that affect social and emotional development “Social competence is seen as a critical aspect of academic and social success” (Joy 2016). There are many factors that affect the social development of preschool aged children. Children all learn, grow, and react differently to various stimuli in the environment and based on their gender. They have different temperaments, ideas, feelings, and cultures. Preschool aged children are bombarded with new faces, tasks, rules, and being away from their parents when they begin preschool. These stressors all cause different developmental challenges in regard to the social emotional aspect. The children feel mixed emotions while they are at school; happiness, sadness, anger, fear, loneliness, and frustration are all common feelings for a child to have. If the child has been in childcare or preschool previously it may be easier for that child to communicate his or her feelings, while the child who is in his very first school environment may not know how to say what he or she is feeling. Children in a preschool environment are also learning how to share their toys, deal with conflicting opinions or ideas, play in cooperative groups, and follow instructions. If a child has come from home it may be difficult for that child to cooperate, share, and follow directions when asked. It might be easier for a child who has already had school experience to take turns and share toys. They must be taught to share and taught that using words are better than hitting or kicking. They must learn to describe how they are feeling with words instead of actions, and they have to acclimate themselves to the new school environment. Literature Summary Role of the Parents An important issue in counseling parents and the development of intervention for children is the extent to which other family environmental conditions are the path through which conflict impacts children's development” (Whiteside-Mansell, Bradley, Mckelvey, and Fussell 2009). The role that parents play in early childhood social and emotion development is a key component in how young children grow and develop. Parents are the first people that a child communicates with and often become the model of the child’s behaviors. Young children should be exposed to sensory play and stimulation, language and speech development, physical movement, and social interactions with other children and adults. The ways in which parents interact and connect with their children can have a crucial part in the development of the child’s social, emotional and cognitive development. Studies have determined that the cognitive and social development that children need to be successful in school later on has to begin in the home with parents and caregivers. Parents and caregivers who are nurturing, loving, and responsive to their child’s needs and questions help establish the foundation for future social skills and development. The research of Tamis-LeMonda & Rodriguez (2009) discuss three variables of a child’s life at home. Each of these three variables contribute to early language and learning growth in young children. These variables include: providing specific learning activities such as reading to a child daily, a nurturing and responsive parenting style, and providing developmentally and age appropriate toys and books. Literature Summary Social and Emotional Development Social and emotional development is essential in young children being successful and flourishing while they grow and are in school. Relationships are always present in young children’s lives. They learn to communicate, love, and learn from the adults that care for them and the other children or siblings they are around each day. Children who feel safe and are in a supportive environment are more likely to try new things and become problem-solvers. Social and emotional development are both important factors in the growth of a child. Those types of development also help the children with their cognitive development. Children with effective social and emotional skills have an easier time getting along with others, following directions, and concentrating on the directions and tasks given to them. Studies have shown that children who can concentrate, follow directions, communicate and cooperate with other children, and can manage their negative feelings tend to perform better in school than children who are not as socially or emotionally developed. Children's social skills were related to academic development controlling for attention and aggression problems, consistent with models suggesting that children's social strengths and difficulties are independently related to their academic development (Kupersmidt, Voegler-Lee, and Marshall 2012). Literature Summary Self-Regulation Self-regulation is the ability of a person (or child) to control his or her on thoughts, actions, and emotions. The development of self-regulation skills in preschool can be seen as a process where children gradually and increasingly acquire internal regulatory skills (Willis & Dinehart, 2014). A good example of self-regulation could be a child being able to calmly wait his or her turn to play a game or get a drink from a water fountain. Self-regulation is one of the key components in helping prevent aggression and anti-social behaviors in children. Elizabeth Willis writes that “programmes that enhance these skills (self-regulation) in the early childhood years could prove effective in augmenting the natural development of these skills and parallel development consequently promoting confidence, resiliency, compassion, school readiness and long-term academic success within our twenty-first century children” (Willis 2016). Literature Summary Teacher Training and Education Research has shown that many teachers feel under trained and under prepared to teach social and emotional behaviors. “Faculty members reported their graduates were prepared on topics such as working with families, preventive practices, and supporting social emotional development but less prepared to work with children with challenging behaviors” (Hemmeter, Santos, and Ostrosky 2008). There are many early childhood teachers that are non-degreed teachers, and this presents an issue with the amount of training and education they have received. An early child hood teacher must be educated and trained on social and emotional development and how to teach and reinforce the desired behaviors within their classrooms. One solution to this problem with teacher education is implementing training programs to help them. One such program is called REACH. REACH stands for “Reaching Educators and Children. It is a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children’s social and emotional development” (Conners-Burrow, Patrick, Kyzer 2017). These programs offer training and accountability to ensure that teachers are prepared to better serve and teach young children. They focus on academics as well social and emotional skills. Literature Summary How to Measure Social and Emotional Growth The measurement of social and emotional skills is largely qualitative in methodology. Pre-school students are new to school. They cannot read or write, and they are not yet fluent in expressing their feelings and needs. For these reasons one of the best ways to gather data and measure progress is to observe the children during their free play learning centers, small group times, and outside play times. It is important to watch how the students interact with each other to track their social interactions. One way to get data on preschool students is to interview them. It would be beneficial to interview them individually on what they believe the classroom rules are and why they think they are important. After the data has been collected and analyzed the teachers can see what areas are improving and what areas need more work. Teachers can then model desired behaviors and better teach the social skills that the students need to be successful in preschool. The ultimate goal of measuring social and emotional development is that “the greatest progress will be made when measures of young children's social and emotional development are clearly mapped onto an agreed upon conceptual framework that both distinguishes social and emotional development from other broad domains (such as cognitive development), and includes carefully delineated and defined subdomains (broad areas within social and emotional development, such as emotional competence), constructs (specific aspects within subdomains, such as emotion knowledge), and corresponding behaviors” ( Jones, Zaslow, and Darling-Churchill 2016). Literature Summary What is being done to Improve Social and Emotional Skills? Rewards are good ways to improve these skills. One example of an extrinsic reward for positive behaviors is to give the students verbal praise and positive reinforcements. Tangible reinforcements, such as stickers on a reward chart, is a good way to motivate students to exhibit desired behaviors because their reward is visible and hanging in the room. Students should be praised and rewarded for appropriate expression of emotion and use of words, doing kind deeds and appropriate conflict resolution. Another way to improve preschool students social and emotional skills is to teach them the desired behaviors and to help them learn and practice the rules of the classroom. Daily lessons on social skills, appropriate touches/behaviors, and daily reviews of classroom rules and expectations are necessary to properly teach the children what is right and what is wrong. Students should be taught ways to talk to their friends, how to say no, ways to solve problems without physical altercations and when it is time to ask for help. The children should also spend time in small cooperative learning groups to give be them a chance to interact on a smaller scale, a smaller group of children will have fewer inappropriate behaviors and more engagement in the lesson or activity. Literature Summary Difficulties Seen in Young Children There are many ways that a lack of social and emotional development can manifest in young children. “Problem behaviors include both internalizing (e.g., ‘troubled’ behaviors such as anxiety, withdrawal) and externalizing behaviors (e.g., ‘troublesome’ behaviors such as acting out, and conduct disorders), and issues of both over-control (inhibited, and dependent) and under-control (impulsive, inattention, and aggressive) behaviors The lack of social skills is presenting itself as negative and aggressive anti-social behavior such as tattling, hitting, biting, and kicking. Some students have social skills that are underdeveloped and find it very difficult to gain confidence and increase their skills in this area” (Benson 2009; Vahedi, Farrokhi, and Farajian 2012). Sampling The participants in this study are the students in the 3 K and 4K preschool classrooms. There are 25 children in these classes, 15 boys and 10 girls. Ages 3-5 Various economic standings Multiple races and backgrounds Method of Data Collection The goals, outcomes, and data collection methods for this research are intended to measure the change in the social skills of preschool students. Pre and post surveys and interviews will be conducted to gather information on the students understanding of appropriate versus inappropriate behaviors. The results of the pre and post assessments will be charted and compared to show the decrease in anti-social behaviors. I will be teaching weekly social skill lessons on appropriate behavior and self-expression. There will be role playing activities, children’s books related to our social skill topics, and small group time to focus on classroom rules and social skills. There will be a pre-intervention survey and a post intervention survey. The results will be compared and should show an increase in appropriate expression and behaviors. Method of Data Collection One expected outcome is that students will express emotions in appropriate ways more during classroom activities and play. These outcomes will be measured by classroom observations and one on one interviews with the students. During these interviews students will be asked questions dealing with classroom rules, how they would like to be treated, and how they should treat their classmates. There will be a pre-intervention survey and a post intervention survey. The results will be compared and should show an increase in appropriate expression and behaviors. Data Analysis Procedure Interviews will be reviewed and notes will be taken from those interviews Observation journals will be reviewed and categorized The data collected will be presented in charts and graphs that display the outcomes. Below shows an example of how each type of data collected will be organized to carefully analyze the data. In final form all student names are left out to protect . Ethics and Human Relations The stakeholders for this project include the teachers of both preschool classrooms, our school’s administration, and the parents of the students in my class. I feel that the teachers of the younger toddler classes in the school could also benefit from these findings. The results of this research project could be used in their classes to help lay a good foundation for teaching social skills. Students and parents have the right to privacy, no names will be used or discussed when reviewing the data Only parties that are on a need to know basis will have access to personal information or identifying information This is not research meant to alienate any one person or group off people, it is intended to help preschool students learn and develop more socially and emotionally All students will be treated fairly and equally during every interview and observation Data will be presented to raise awareness for this concern in the classroom and to help teachers find solutions to those problems. Timeline The timeline for this action plan will be approximately three months, AugustNovember. This timeline will allow adequate time for students to adjust to being in a new social environment or a first social environment, as it will be for some students. This will be a good timeline to be able to observe each student and then focus on the students who have the most difficulties cooperating and socializing with their peers. References Barnett, W. S., & Belfield, C. R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2) Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://search-proquestcom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/docview/1519298905?accountid=12085 Benson JB. USA: Academic Press; 2009. Social and emotional development in infancy and early childhood. Conners-Burrow, N.A., Patrick, T., Kyzer, A. et al. Early Childhood Education J (2017) 45: 187. https://doiorg.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10643-016-0781-2 Hemmeter, M. L., Santos, R. M., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2008). Preparing early childhood educators to address young children's social-emotional development and challenging behavior: A survey of higher education programs in nine states. Journal of Early Intervention, 30(4), 321-340. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/233253075?accountid=458 Jones, S. M., Zaslow, M., Darling-Churchill, K. E., & Halle, T. G. (2016). Assessing early childhood social and emotional development: Key conceptual and measurement issues. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 42-48. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2016.02.008 Joy, J. M. (fall 2016). Evaluating Positive Social Competence in Preschool Populations. School Community Journal,26(No.2), 263-289. Retrieved February 5, 2018, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1124016.pdf . References Tamis-LeMonda CS, Rodriguez ET. Parents’ Role in Fostering Young Children’s Learning and Language Development. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Rvachew S, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/language-development...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern