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Unformatted text preview: 1 THIS IS AN OPTIONAL ENRICHMENT ASSIGNMENT. PRINT AND COMPLETE IN INK. Name:_______________________________________ Class Period:_____ WWI, 1914-1918 Reading Assignment: Chapter 22 in AMSCO or other resource covering World War I. Mastery of the course and AP exam await all who choose to process the information as they read/receive. This is an optional assignment. So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try. Directions: 1. 2. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! Write Write (do not type) your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Complete it in INK! 3. 4. (Image was created by James Montgomery Flagg as one of the many propaganda pieces from WWI, public domain. It was originally published as the cover for the July 6, 1916, issue of Leslie's Weekly with the title "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?" Over four million copies were printed between 1917 and 1918, and the image has been used repeatedly in both public and private campaigns ever since. The U.S. government got is nickname, Uncle Sam, in 1813. By 1876, thanks to Thomas Nast, Uncle Sam was portrayed in striped pants, long coat, top hat, white beard etc. image we all recognize today.) Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 7: Key Concept 7.1: Growth expanded opportunity, while economic instability led to new efforts to reform U.S. society and its economic system. Key Concept 7.2: Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns. Key Concept 7.3: Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world. Learning Goals: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I including America’s changing foreign policy, economics, and idealism. Evaluate the effectiveness of Woodrow Wilson’s leadership during WWI. Explain the ways the American Homefront responded to the change in American foreign policy from neutrality to involvement in the war. 1. OVERVIEW (page 454-456)… Read the first two pages and then thoughtfully answer the two questions below. 1914 1915 WWI Begins/Assassination of Ferdinand 1916 1917 U.S. enters WWI 1918 WWI ends Causes Analysis WWI was caused by Militarism, Alliance Systems, Imperialism, and Nationalism, with the spark igniting the “powder keg” being the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. WWI began in 1914. Which cause was more significant, the assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand or entangling alliances? Explain your reasoning. a. Archduke Franz Ferdinand b. Austrian ultimatum to Serbia c. Germany (allied with Austria) declares war on Russia and France (allies of Serbia) and invades neutral Belgium d. Great Britain (ally of France) declares war on Germany Entangling alliances were a more significant cause to the start of World War 1 than the assassination of Ferdinand because they were what got many of the other countries involved in the first place. Despite being a more active world player in 1914 in places like China, Philippines, and the Caribbean, the U.S. responded with a declaration of U.S. neutrality. Why? The U.S, had alliances with ceratin countries in Europe, and wanted to continue trade with them without being attacked by ather countries for engaging in acts of war. 2 2. MORAL DIPLOMACY -- Reviewing Wilson’s Foreign Policy (back to ch20 for a moment), pp421-423 Answer the following questions by reviewing main events, defining terms, and analyzing significance in the spaces provided. Consider the the left hand column the main ideas in your answer, the center column for notes, and the right column for deeper analysis. American foreign policy during the first years of the war, 1914-1916, was neutrality. Summarize American involvement in world affairs during Woodrow Wilson’s first term, 1913-1917 and evaluate the extent to which they were neutral. Main Events/Ideas Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy was “Moral Diplomacy.” He reversed Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” and averted Teddy’s “Big Stick.” He was an antiimperialist and hoped to lead America into a new era where the U.S. wasn’t an opportunistic bully. a. b. c. d. e. f. Moral Diplomacy Jones Act Citizenship for Puerto Ricans Panama Canal tolls Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan California land policy & tensions with Japan Wilson struggled to avoid conflict and intervention in Latin America. He was an anti-imperialist, but as challenges arose in the Caribbean that may have an economic and/or political impact on the U.S…. he found himself behaving like an imperialist. a. b. c. d. Haiti Dominican Republic Virgin Islands Central America Wilson resisted intervention in the Mexican revolts, because they were financially motivated (and Wilson detested Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy). In the end, however, he sent troops. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. General Victoriano Huerta Mexican immigration Tampico Incident Port of Vera Cruz ABC intervention Venustiano Carranza Pancho Villa & Pershing/American Expeditionary Force Definitions/Explanations Moral Dilomacy - A new approach by Wison to keep America neutral and still have open trade with allies. The Jones Act - requires goods shipped between U.S. ports to be transported on ships that are built, owned, and operated by United States citizens or permanent residents Analysis To what extent was Moral Diplomacy consistent with a policy of neutrality? It was consistent in the sense that it succeeded in keeping the US neutral for most of the war, while keeping trade open between the United Sates and allies. Panama Canal tolls - The average toll is around US$54,000. Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan - Gave the Cross of Gold speech Japanese recognition of Wilson's sincere attempt to prevent the legislation from passing and also the understanding that a president could not dictate policy to state legislatures Haiti - Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti to restore order and maintain political and economic stability in the Caribbean To what extent was Wilson’s foreign policy toward Latin American countries neutral? He did not use the land for military purposes Dominican Republic - Grant aquired as a valuable military outpost Virgin Islands - The U.S. bought the islands from Denmark for $25 million. The island chain consists of St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. John, and about 50 other small islands, most of which are uninhabited. Explain why Wilson contradicted his beliefs with his actions? He took over several countries despite believing in anti-imperialism To what extent was American involvement in Mexico consistent with a neutral foreign policy? Why did Wilson contradict his beliefs with his actions? Why did Wilson give up on finding Pancho Villa? 3 3. NEUTRALITY -- Guided Reading, pp 455-457 Compare U.S. neutrality in the early 19th century to neutrality in the early 20th century. Main Events/Ideas Definitions/Explanations Wilson faced the same problems Jefferson and Madison faced prior to the War of 1812. Essentially the challenge is being a neutral nation but also maintaining trade. Pre-War of 1812 (see pp 137-138) a. Embargo Act b. Non-Intercourse Act c. Macon’s Bill No. 2 d. Impressment Analysis To what extent was asserting neutrality for Wilson similar the asserting neutrality for Jefferson and Madison? Cite two specific reasons in your answer. a. b. Pre-U.S. involvement in WWI (pp 455-456) a. British seize U.S. ships & blockade Germany b. Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare c. Sussex Pledge d. Lusitania e. U.S. economic boom & trade f. North Sea Embargo (by Great Britain) g. loans Support or refute the following statement: The U.S. didn’t choose sides in either war based on loyalty or alliance. They chose sides based on economic priorities. Cite two specific pieces of evidence in your answer. a. b. Identify other events that pulled or pushed the United States into WWI on the side of the Allies. Main Events/Ideas Public sentiment toward Germany deteriorated, increasing support for the Allies. a. b. c. d. e. Kaiser Wilhelm Italian Americans German-Americans Irish Americans British war propaganda Definitions/Explanations Analysis Did the United States enter WWI on the side of the Allies because Americans were pro-British and anti-German? Explain your reasoning. 4 Events that pushed or pulled the U.S. into war… continued… Newspaper Analysis Historical Context… A civilian cruise line containing Americans was attacked and sunk by a German U-boat Viewpoint of Headline… The viewpoint of the headline puts across the idea that war is near Impact on Americans… Brought Americans more motive to enter the war 4. DECISION FOR WAR, pp 459-460 Main Events/Ideas Despite Wilson’s efforts to keep the country out of war, events escalated creating an “unavoidable” involvement. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. National Security League National Defense Act “He Kept Us Out Of War!” Colonel Edward House sent to Berlin Unrestricted submarine warfare resumed Zimmerman Telegram Russian Revolution Declaration of War, April 1917 Definitions/Explanations National Security League - supported a greatly expanded military based upon universal service, the naturalization and Americanization of immigrants National Defense Act - a federal law that updated the Militia Act of 1903, which related to the organization of the military, particularly the National Guard. “He Kept Us Out Of War!” - The sentiments felt by the majority of Americans towards Woodrow Wison that resulted in his reelection Analysis Support or refute the following statement: U.S. involvement in WWI was unavoidable. Explain your reasoning, and cite two specific pieces of evidence to support your answer. This statement is accurate, because American lives were being taken anyways, and this would have continued to happen if the US did not step in Colonel Edward House sent to Berlin - was sent to Berlin to negotiate peace, was unsuccessful Unrestricted submarine warfare resumed - Since no one had control of the sea, there was no restriction on submarine warfare Zimmerman Telegram - was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the prior event of the United States entering World War I against Germany. Russian Revolution - a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. Declaration of War, April 1917 - the US officially enters World War 1 a. Lusitania b. Zimmerman Telegram 5 5. MOBILIZATION, pp 460-462 How did the American Homefront respond to the declaration of war on Germany? Main Events/Ideas American troops were untrained and ill prepared for battle, so the first step toward fighting the war was economic. a. b. c. d. e. f. War Industries Board; Bernard Baruch Food Administration; Herbert Hoover Fuel Administration, Harry Garfield National War Labor Board; William Howard Taft Liberty Bonds Increased taxes Anti-War sentiments threatened the success of the quick paced mobilization. Conflicts arising led to a suppression of civil liberties and increased nativism. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. William Jennings Bryan Jeannette Rankin Robert La Follette Committee on Public Information; George Creel American Protective League Espionage act, 1917 Sedition Act, 1918 Eugene Debs Schenck v. United States Definitions/Explanations War Industries Board; Bernard Baruch - In January 1918, the board was reorganized under the leadership of financier Bernard M. Baruch. The WIB dealt with labor-management disputes resulting from increased demand for products during World War I Food Administration; Herbert Hoover - Under the direction of Herbert Hoover the U.S. Food Administration employed its Grain Corporation, organized under the provisions of the Food Control Act of August 10, 1917, as an agency for the purchase and sale of foodstuff. Analysis How did Wilson’s mobilization efforts reflect Progressivism? Explain your reasoning. Though he set up a draft system for American men, women also served in various capacities Fuel Administration, Harry Garfield - To address concerns about a steady supply of fuel to support military and industrial operations and for use by consumers, in 1917 the Federal Fuel Administration was established and US President Woodrow Wilson appointed Harry A. Garfield to lead the agency. Garfield in turn selected local administrators for each state. National War Labor Board, William Howard Taft - Soon the government became concerned that labor strikes might stop the production of military equipment and supplies. In response President Woodrow Wilson created the National War Labor Board. William Jennings Bryan - Gave the Cross of Gold speech Jeannete Rankin - the first woman elected to Congress, one of the few suffragists elected to Congress, and the only Member of Congress to vote against U.S. participation in both World War I Robert La Follette - American Republican and politician who is best known as a proponent of progressivism and a fierce opponent to corporate power. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, the Governor of Wisconsin and a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin during his career. The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence public opinion to support US participation in World War I. The American Protective League (1917-1919) was an organization of private citizens that worked with Federal law enforcement agencies during the World War I era to identify suspected German sympathizers The law was extended on May 16, 1918, by the Sedition Act of 1918, actually a set of amendments to the Espionage Act, which prohibited many forms of speech, including "any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of government of the United States Compare Wilson’s response to anti-war and anti-American sentiments during WWI to Lincoln’s response to anti-union sentiments during the Civil War and Adams response to anti-Federalist sentiments during his term in office. Were the responses justified? Wilson tried harder to stay out of the war, While Lincoln encouraged the north to fight Wilson and Lincoln… similar or different? (see pp 268-269) Wilson and Lincoln had different viewpoints, as Wilson was more progressive in his thinking than Lincoln Wilson and Adams… similar or different? (see pp 116-117) Wilson was similar to Adams in the sense that he believed in a strong central government Was Adams justified? yes Was Lincoln justified? yes Was Wilson justified? yes 6 MOBILIZATION continued… Main Events/Ideas The American military mobilized for and entered the battle fields of Europe. This led to new opportunities for women and African Americans, but racial and gender discrimination continued. a. b. c. d. e. f. Voluntary enlistment Selective Service Act, 1917 African American troops Jobs for women Mexican migration African American migrationThe Great Migration Definitions/Explanations Voluntary Enlistment - In 1914 Lord Kitchener introduced voluntary enlistment to expand the British forces. Professor Peter Simkins explains why and how this initiative so successfully recruited large numbers of men at the beginning of World War One. Analysis Explain the social impact of military mobilization on the American Homefront during WWI. It created the need for better modes of transportation during this period Selective Service Act - The Selective Service Act or Selective Draft Act authorized the United States federal government to raise a national army for service in World War I through conscription. African American troops - More than 350,000 African Americans served in segregated units during World War I, mostly as support troops. Several units saw action alongside French soldiers fighting against the Germans, and 171 African Americans were awarded the French Legion of Honor. Jobs for women - During WWI (1914-1918), large numbers of women were recruited into jobs vacated by men who had gone to fight in the war. New jobs were also created as part of the war effort, for example in munitions factories. Mexican immigration - After WW1 laws were introduced authorizing "Mounted Inspectors" along the US-Mexico Border. The 1943 Bracero Program brought temporary Mexican laborers to Work to help the economy during and after WW2. 1965 saw the end of the Bracero Program and led to an influx of illegal Mexican immigrants. African American migration- The Great Migration - The Great Migration was the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from about 1916 to 1970. Compare the Selective Service Act of 1917 to the Enrollment (Draft) Act of 1863. The Enrollment Act (or Conscription/Draft) of 1863, was a controversial act required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five in order to keep Union troops replenished. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. In some cities, particularly New York City, enforcement of the act sparked civil unrest as the war dragged on, leading to the New York Draft Riots on July 13–16. African Americans were allowed to serve in 1863 following the Emancipation Proclamation, which also sparked unrest in some populations in the North. Selective Service Act implementation and impact similar or different? Explain! 7 6. FIGHTING THE WAR and MAKING THE PEACE, pp 463-467 How did the United States help the Allies defeat the Central Powers, and how were Americans impacted by war? Main Events/Ideas Definitions/Explanations Analysis The American military joined the fight as the Russians withdrew, entering a bloody war with new weapons and grueling trench warfare that moved to a single front to stop the Germans. They entered with patriotic romanticism and left disillusioned and scarred. The World War I Emergency Fleet. During the first World War, steel was becoming scarce. President Woodrow Wilson approved the construction of 24 concrete ships. Of the 24, only 12 were built, at a total cost of $50 million. By the time the ships were completed, the war had already ended. List three reasons why Pershing was a notable leader before and during WWI. a. b. The Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning of the tide in World War I. It began with the last German offensive of the conflict and was quickly followed by the first allied offensive victory of 1918. the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a major part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front. It was fought from 26 September 1918 until the Armistice of 11 November 1918, a total of 47 days. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Ship construction American Expeditionary Force; John J. Pershing Second Battle of the Marne; turning point Battle of Argonne Forest Weapons of war U.S. casualties (skip to page 466) Demobilization The Red Scare & Palmer Raids The 1919 Steel Strike and the Great Seattle Strike Chicago race riot U.S. Army general John J. Pershing (1860-1948) commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe during World War I. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. ... The Palmer Raids occurred i...
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