IntroductionThis paper is an analysis and critique of a published nursing philosophy and theory by the nurse theorist Madeleine Leininger. The analysis is based on Leininger's publications about her theory starting in the mid-1950's with her major contribution stemming from her second book, Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research, and Practice in 1978. The model used to analyze this theory is the Chinn and Kramer model. This model was developed by Peggy Chinn and Maenoa Kramer in 1983. The model utilizes a two-step process to evaluate theories called theory description and critical reflection. Theory description consists of purpose, concepts, definitions, relationships, structure, and assumptions. Critical reflection analyzes the purpose of the theory utilizing a series of questions. (McEwen & Willis, 2010, p. 95) This model will be used to critique one of the oldest theories in nursing.PurposeTranscultural Nursing Theory discovers and explains the culturally based care factors that influence health, well-being, illness, and death of each individual or community. The purpose and goal of the transcultural nursing theory is to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. (Leininger, 2002, p. 190) Leininger has established a theory that studies cultures to understand their differences and similarities. Cultural competence is important within the nursing profession due to the differences in each individual's perception of illness and wellness. Congruency between culture and health care is essential to thewell-being of each individual and community. An individual's health beliefs and practices are linked by his/her culture. The culture care theory focuses on cultural beliefs and practices when determining a plan of care. It continues with the belief that nurses need to consider that not all cultures are similar, and there are variations within each culture. Each individual or community should be treated differently from the rest and that personal uniqueness should always be considered. This belief stems from Leininger's personal belief in "God's creative and caring ways." (Leininger, 2002, p. 190)Concepts & DefinitionsTranscultural theory uses the concepts of culture, race, and ethnicity to understand human behavior. When providing culturally competent care nurses should understand the meaning of these terms. Leininger also focuses on a few other concepts such as cultural competence, culturalawareness, and acculturation. Leininger's theory focuses on numerous concepts, but these were selected based on the importance of nurses integrating the most basic concepts of transcultural nursing into their well-established knowledge base. "Culture influences all spheres of human life.