CHAPTER 7: Learning
Three Types of Learning: Classical, Operant, & Social
Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes that occurs from one’s interactions with the environment . There are three (color coded) parts to the definition of learning. The three types of learning are CLASSICAL, OPERANT, AND OBSERVATIONAL.
Types of Learning • Classical Conditioning : process by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response because it is a signal for another stimulus which naturally elicits the response. • Operant Conditioning : process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur depending on its consequences (i.e., rewards and punishments). • Social/Observational: process by which an observer imitates the behavior another person is doing.
Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning is formally called RESPONDENT conditioning. • Classical deals with EMOTIONS . • Respondent/Classical conditioning STARTS with a reflex—an involuntary response that is ELICITED/caused by an environmental stimulus. • When the stimulus is sensed it causes the reflexive response.
• IF I blow air in your eye, you blink. • The air is an antecedent stimulus because it precedes the response. • The blink is the involuntary response or reflex. • Once a blink is triggered by an antecedent, the person cannot (a) keep the reflex from occurring, or (b) stop it before it finishes. Antecedent Stimulus
Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov - 1920s • Neutral stimulus (NS) • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) • Unconditioned response (UCR) • Conditioned stimulus (CS) • Conditioned response (CR)
Reflexes • Any reflex can be “diagramed.” • The GENERIC diagram for a reflex is: • Elicits • UCS UCR • Read the diagram as “the UCS elicited the UCR” • Air blown into the eye makes you blink • The air is the UCS. • The blink is the UCR.
Unconditioned Response • Air blown in eye makes you blink • The blink is the involuntary response—the reflex. • The blink is formally labeled the UCR. • UCR stands for UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE.
Reflexes • A reflex does NOT qualify as “learning.” • UCS UCR is NOT learning • Animals (including humans) are BORN with reflexes. • Classical conditioning STARTS with a reflex.