**Unformatted text preview: **ENSC – Fluid Me ha i s
La
Tra sitio to Tur ule e – Re olds
E peri e t Charles Ja es Edward Jude th April : a - : a Question 1
= ̇ = ∆
∆ ∆ =∆ ∙
∆
∙
∆ = = System is at Steady State , = , , , = . = . × ∙ = ∙ = ∙ ∆
∙
∆ = ∆ ∙
∆ = , , = , − = = ∆ ∙
∆ ∆ ∙
∆ .
× = ∆
∙
∆ =( 2 − ) ∙ =( 2 − ) ∙ . − Question 2 Where x is the height of water in manometer 1 Where y is the height of water in manometer 2 − =( 2 − ∆ℎ = ) ∙ − −( 2 − ) ∙ =( 2 =( ∆ℎ ∙ 2 − 2 ∙ ∆ℎ = )∙ − ∆ℎ =
=( 2 2 − ∆ℎ = ∆ℎ −
∆ℎ = ∆ℎ = − − − . 2 − − ∙ ) ∙ ∆ℎ ∙ ∙ 2 2 ) ∙ ∆ℎ ∙ ∙ ∆ℎ ∙ ∆ℎ ∆ℎ = . ∆ℎ Question 3
Run 1
=
= ∆
∙
∆
.
. ∙ .
× . = ∙ . = . = = . ∙ . ∙ . × . ∙ ∆ℎ ∙ ∙ . ∙ − − − ∙ ∙
∙ = ∆ℎ ∙ = . .
× . = . − = . ∙ ∙
∙
∙ .
∙ . × − Run 2
.
. = = . ∙ . =
= . ∙ ∙ . = ∙ = . .
× − ∙ . × − ∙ .
∙ . × .
. − . ∙ . − Run 3
=
=
= . .
. ∙ . Run 4 =
= . = ∙ − ∙ . × . − . ∙ . = . .
. ∙ ∙ . = ∙ . ∙ .
∙ .
.
× − ∙ . × . = . ∙ . .
× . = . ∙ . = ∙ − . ∙ . = . ∙ .
∙ . − × − − × − Run 5
=
=
= . .
. ∙ ∙ . ∙ . ∙ − ∙ . × . = .
= .
× . − . ∙ . = . ∙ .
∙ . − × − Run 6
.
. = ∙ . ∙ . = .
× − ∙ . × . = . =
= . ∙ . − . ∙ . ∙ ∙ .
∙ . = . − × − Run 7
.
. = ∙ . ∙ . = .
× − ∙ . × . = . =
= . ∙ . − ∙ . ∙ . = . ∙ .
∙ . − × − Run 8
.
. = = . ∙ . =
= . ∙ ∙ . = ∙ = . .
× − ∙ . × − ∙ .
∙ . × .
. − . ∙ . − Run 9
.
. = = . ∙ . =
= . ∙ = ∙ . ∙ = . .
× − ∙ . × − ∙ .
∙ . × .
. − . ∙ . − Run 10
.
. = = . ∙ . =
= . ∙ = ∙ . ∙ = . .
× − ∙ . × − ∙ .
∙ . × .
. − . ∙ . − Run 11
.
. = = . =
= . ∙ ∙ . = ∙ . ∙ = . .
. .
× − . × . ∙ . − ∙ .
∙ . − × − Run 12
.
. = . = . =
= . ∙ ∙ . = ∙ . ∙ . = . .
× − . × . − ∙ . − ∙ .
∙ . − × The shape and location of the curve created by plotting our results on the moody diagram roughly
matches the curve with a relative roughness of 0.0006. ℎ = → . = . = × −6
The largest deviation from the plotted line is ≈ 5% so the confidence interval is ≈95%
The trend of our results agrees with our understanding of laminar and turbulent pipe flow but the
results are skewed away from the moody diagram indicating there were some errors in the
experiment. These errors include the pipe having a finite length. This will have a large effect on the
experimental values as the end and start correlation of the flow is for infinitely long pipes. However,
we would expect this to lower the critical Reynolds number for the experiment and from our results
it appears to have increased. Thus, the value for ε fro our experi e t correlate to our
understanding of pipe flow. Question 4
∆ =± .
∆ℎ = ± .
∆ =± . Assume Dp, Dc, ρ, L and μ have uncertainties of ±0
For run 10
∆ = . ∆ = ∆ℎ = . ± . . ± . ± . = = = ± . % . ± . . ± . % % = . ± . %
∙
. ± . %
= . ± %∙ . =
= . = ∙ . ∆ = = . ∆ℎ = .
= . = . ± . % ± . ∙ .
∙ . = = ± . = ± . ± . . ± . %
∙
. ± . % ∙ . %∙ ± . ± %∙ . = . ± . = . ± %
± % − ± . %∙ .
.
± % = . For run 11
∆ ± . − . .
× = − . % % = . %∙ ± ∙ . × −
± . % ± . % . ± . . ± . .
× ± . ± . % ∙ .
∙ . ± . % % ± %
−
± % ± . %∙ .
.
± %
. − × % % − × ± ∙ . × −
± . % For run 12
∆ ∆ = = . ∆ℎ = .
= = . ± . = ± . = ± . . ± . %
∙
. ± . %
= . ± %∙ .
= = − . ± . % . ± . .
× ± . . ± . ± . % ± %
± % − % ± . %∙ .
.
± %
. % % × − ± = .
Average uncertainty for Re=2.54% ∙ . ± . = . %∙ ∙ .
∙ . ± . % ∙ . × −
± . % Average uncertainty for fm=5.50% Question 5
The visual dye indicator showed laminar flow up until a Reynolds number of roughly 6000 and
transitional flow up to Reynolds number of 10000 these results show that the flow in this tube has a
critical Reynolds number of ≈ 6000. Question 6
Laminar flow occurs when the fluid flows in parallel layers with no disruption between the layers and
no eddies acting perpendicular to the flow. Laminar flow generally occurs in pipes with a very small
diameter or very slow flow. The flow can be considered laminar when the Reynolds number is below
2000.
Turbulent flow is characterized by rapid mixing due to large eddies making the flow unpredictable.
The speed at any point of a fluid undergoing turbulent flow is constantly undergoing changes in both
magnitude and direction. Turbulent flow generally occurs when the Reynold number is above 4000. ...

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