Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 7 (1).doc

Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 7 (1).doc - Outline...

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Outline and Lecture Notes of Chapter 7 Verbal Intercultural Communication I. The Power of Language in Intercultural Communication A. Language is learned unconsciously, without awareness, and is too often taken for granted. B. It is usually when people speak their language to those who do not understand it or when they struggle to become competent in another language that they recognize language’s central role in the ability to function, to accomplish tasks, and most important, to interact with others. C. The importance of language in contemporary society is increasing as a result of globalization and immigration. Consider This: Consider This: In addition to English, California’s elementary schools must deals with over three hundred languages. California’s driver’s license test is administered in 32 languages. The Top 10 Non English Language in the United States 1. Spanish 2. Chinese 3. French 4. German 5. Tagalog 6. Vietnamese 7. Italian 8. Korean 9. Russian 10. Polish Source: U.S. Census Bureau II. Definition of Verbal Codes and Features of Language A. Verbal means “consisting of words” either spoken (oral) or written (nonoral). B. A verbal code is defined as a set of rules about the use of words in the creation of messages. C. Symbols are words, actions, or objects that stand for or represent a unit of meaning (recall from Chapter 1). The 1
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relationship between the selection symbols and the agreed meaning is quite often arbitrary. Consider This: Consider This: phonological meanings. Can you tell what it is? (The answer is in page 11) kissa Finnish katze Germany paka Swahili neko Japanese Chinese D. Rule systems of verbal codes govern the composition and ordering of symbols. 1. Phonology refers to the rules of language for combining phonemes (basic units of sound)-how words are pronounced. Because different languages use different sounds, it is often difficult for non native speaker to learn how to pronounce some sounds. French, for example, has no equivalent for the voiced “th” sound (as in mother) or the unvoiced “th” sound (as in think) in English. English speakers may have difficulty in pronouncing the French “r” (as in la fourrure), which is produced further back in the mouth than in English Some languages that have tonal differences are difficult for speakers of other languages. Vietnamese have six tones (level, high rising, low/falling, dipping- rising, high rising glotalized and low glotalized). One word (ma) can have six different meanings: ghost, check, but, tomb, horse and rice seedling, depending on the tone. 2. Morphology refers to the rules of language for combining phonemes to form morphemes, which are the smallest units of meaning. 3. Semantics refers to the study of the meanings of words.
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