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Foundations of Public Policy II: Critical Essay and Analytic Discussion LeaderPatricio Belloy, 04/21/18The readings of this week aim to demonstrate how the views and attitudes on race andclass are influencing policy at the federal and state levels, in addition to how policy has beenstrategically crafted to perpetuate unequal participation in society, favoring certain sociallyconstructed groups and marginalizing others, particularly low-income people and minorities. The piece from Bentele and O’Brien (2013) analyzes state level legislative developmentsin terms of partisan, electoral, and demographic conditions associated with the proposal andpassage of restrictions to voting. Even if restrictive voter-access policies are passed at rates lowerthan they are proposed –in consistency with the policy process (Peters, 1999)– the Republicanparty has pursued and achieved a strategy of demobilizing voters inclined to elect democrats. Toarguably protect voting legitimacy against fraud, racially biased policies are restricting access tothe ballot to those who are less capable to navigate the system and marginalizing blackcommunities, in line with the changes in social welfare policy and criminal justice in the lastdecades.Through an empirical analysis, the authors provide support to identifying the factorsassociated with whether states proposed or passed restrictive voter-access policies between 2006and 2011. Among the findings, in general, proposed and passed restrictive legislation is expectedin states with a Republican majority; where there are more closely divided legislatures; andwhere low-income, African American, and non-citizens groups are a majority and vote morefrequently. In the case of states with higher elderly population –a group that goes to the polls athigher rates and predominantly votes Republican– those restrictions are less common. Likewise,states with a more liberal political culture are less prone to adopt these restrictions.The results strongly support the case of these policies being racially biased and aimed todemobilizing African-Americans and low-income population, illustrating a frontlasheffect