Drug metabolism is.docx - FACULTY OF PHARMACY Factors that Affect Drug Metabolism NAME Yeoh Jing Qi ID NO P17090812 COURSE Introduction to Medicinal

Drug metabolism is.docx - FACULTY OF PHARMACY Factors that...

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FACULTY OF PHARMACY Factors that Affect Drug Metabolism NAME : Yeoh Jing Qi ID NO : P17090812 COURSE : Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry DATE OF SUBMISSION : 25/5/2018 LECTURER’S NAME : Dr. V. Ravichandran
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Drug metabolism is one among the part of pharmacokinetics. It is conjointly referred to as catabolism, the breakdown of drug and xenobiotic molecules via specialised enzymatic systems within the body. Drug metabolism modify the chemical structure of drug by undergoing various phase I and phase II pathways and provides metabolites as a result. The metabolism that converts drug and xenobiotics into further hydrophilic is significant to eliminate these compounds from body and terminate their biological activity. For biotransformation, the concentration and activity of the enzymes liable control or regulate the amount of specific metabolite. The rate of metabolism of a drug is quite important for its pharmacological action in addition as its toxicity. The higher the rate of metabolism, the lower the intensity and hence the shorter the period of the drug action. If the rate of drug metabolism decreases, the intensity and period of the drug action are going to be increases, by the way, it will cause accumulation of drug toxicity levels. There are several factors might influence drug metabolism, it includes age, dietary components, species difference, strains difference and genetic variation, sex, pathological condition, enzyme induction and inhibition, properties of drug, drug stereoselectivity and ethnic difference similarly as environmental factors. The rate of drug metabolism is often affect by completely different group of age, principally because of variations within the enzyme content, enzyme activity and haemodynamic. In newborn baby and infants, the microsomal enzyme system which are oxidative and conjugative enzyme is not absolutely developed. In this way, a large number of drugs are metabolized slowly. For example, caffeine possesses a half-life of four days in newborn baby compared to four hours in adults. After that, the flexibility of perform metabolic reactions will increase apace after birth and approaches adult levels in about one to two months. Full maturity can be seen in second decade of life. However, slow decline in function related to aging. The liver size in older person is reduced and as a result of cardiac output, the microsomal enzyme activity is reduced and hepatic blood flow declines as well, all of that contributes to reduced metabolism of drugs. For instance, bioavailability of chlormethiazole is quite high among the elders, thus a lower dose is needed. A variety of dietary components can affect the content and activity of enzyme. Drug metabolising ability can usually be lower with a low protein diet and rise by a high protein diet because protein diet promote enzyme synthesis and the amount of amino acid will be raise for conjugation with drugs. Higher protein-to-carbohydrate quantitative relation will increase the microsomal mixed function oxidase activity that may induce drug metabolism.
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