A&P 4 Midterm.docx - CHAPTER 24 Digestion Enzymes Involved...

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CHAPTER 24- Digestion Enzymes Involved in Digestion Salivary amylase o Secreted and Active in the mouth o Secreted by the Salivary glands(Parotid and Submandibular glands) o Breaks down Carbohydrates(Starch) o Inactive in the stomach o Converts polysaccharides to disaccharides Pancreatic Amylase o Secreted into the duodenum of the small intestine o Secreted by the Pancreas o Breaks down glycogen and Carbohydrates(Starch) that have be broken- down o Breaks down into monosaccharides Lingual Lipase o Secreted into the mouth but inactive o Secreted by the lingual glands in the tongue o Activated in the stomach due to its acidity o Breaks down into small lipids Gastric Lipase o Secreted in the stomach o Active in the stomach o Secreted by chief cells o inactive in the duodenum of the small intestine Pancreatic Lipase o Secreted into the duodenum of the small intestine o Secreted by the Pancreas o Breaks down into fatty acids/monoglycerides through emulsification (bile salts) Pepsin o Secreted by the Chief cells as Pepsinogen o Pepsinogen comes in contact with the HCL turns into Pepsin o Turns proteins into smaller peptide chains Trypsin o Secreted as trypsinogen (inactive) from the pancreas o Brush border enzymes(enterokinase) actives Trypsin o Breaks down protein into amino acids Chymotrypsin o Secreted as Chymotrypsinogen (inactive) by the pancreas o Activated by Trypsin o Breaks down amino acids Elastase
o Secreted proelastase (inactive) by the pancreas o Activated by the Trypsin o Breaks down into amino acids Carboxypeptidase o Secreted procarboxypeptidase (inactive) by the pancreas. o Breaks down into amino acids Brush boarders o Breaks down Proteins and carbs amino acids and monosaccharides. o Found on the on the surface of the microvilli Absorption Lipids o Short Chains Simple diffusion(to the liver) o Long chains The lipids are broken down and the monoglycerides and fatty acids(via bile salts)(micelles) are secreted into the interstitial fluid via exocytosis They enter the lacteals and are carried through the blood stream Monosaccharides o Fructose Facilitated diffusion o Glucose and Galactose Transported via secondary active transport that is coupled to active Na Glucose and two Na must be filled in order for transporter to occur Galactose and glucose compete for the transport Proteins o Some amino acids enter absorptive cells via Na+ dependent secondary active transport o Some amino acids can diffusion o Dipeptides and Tripeptides use active transport with H+ Electrolytes o Na+ basolateral sodium-potassium pumps o Calcium ions Absorbed Actively stimulated by calcitriol o Iron, potassium, magnesium, and phosphate ions Absorbed via active transport Vitamins o Fat soluble ingested lipids in micelles Simple Diffusion o Water soluble
Simple diffusion o B12 Combined with intrinsic factor Absorbed in the ileum Active transport Water o 8.3 liters in SI

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