AASP Final.docx - W.E.B Du Bois wrote The Crisis(official...

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W.E.B. Du Bois - - wrote The Crisis (official magazine of NAACP) to illustrate the facts and arguments that explained the dangers of racism towards blacks. - Did not want to Africanize America, coined the term "double consciousness" which described the issue of wanting to retain cultural identity and fit into American society. “Talented Tenth”: Du Bois used the term "the talented tenth" to describe the likelihood of one in ten black men becoming leaders of their race in the world, through methods such as continuing their education, writing books, or becoming directly involved in social change. He strongly believed that blacks needed a classical education to be able to reach their full potential, rather than the industrial education promoted by the Atlanta compromise, endorsed by Booker T. Washington and some white philanthropists. Booker T Washington - Had a network of supporters named the Tuskegee Machine. Believed blacks would gain equal rights by demonstrating industry, thrift, intelligence and property. Ida B. Wells (Ida Bell Wells-Barnett) - one of the NAACP’s founders, was born a slave but became an investigative journalist after emancipation, documented the practice of southern lynchings, Disproved myth of the black rapist. Charlie Patton - blues musician who did Down the Dirt Road Blues Marcus Garvey - founder of UNIA, he was authoritarian, militant; did not agree with DuBois; wanted to create a powerful black nation in Africa; was a separatist he worked with ideas of Booker T. Washington; he changed way black Americans viewed themselves and the world; Madam C.J. Walker - first black female millionaire in U.S., used success to give funding to many charities and black organizations Jack Johnson - boxer in the early 20th century; one of the first athletes to introduce flamboyance and swagger, as well as “superstardom” status; broke racial barriers, as he participated in a sport that allowed him to fight (and beat) white athletes thus challenging stereotypes William Foster - pioneering African-American film producer in Chicago, known for work with Micheaux Peter Jones - Oscar Micheaux - African American author, director, and independent producer of over 44 films. (1884-1951). Regarded as the first major African American filmmaker. Produced many race films, worte Within Our Gates which was seen as a response to birth of a nation, film told about the horrors of the unjust justice system and the lynching of blacks in the south. Thomas A. Dorsey - father of gospel music
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Bessie Smith - African American blues singer. Often regard as one of the greatest singers of her era. Billie Holiday - Jazz Singer uses art and some level of "moralsuasion" (e.g. convincing people that lynching is a tragedy that needs to be addressed with "Strange Fruit").
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