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1/181660-1800 is the period we’re studying-“The long 18thcentury”-New intellectual horizons are opening-Brilliant satires are being producedoWritten during a time of healingoWriters are extremely skeptical about literature and knowledge-Culture wars between more Conservative literary minds and more innovative, forward-thinking literary mindsoSwift and Pope are the hold outs for traditional values—with print so cheap, mass marketing is easyoVery first newspapers, periodicals, and novelsLots of new types of writing being invented1660-1700: The Restoration era-Sometimes called “early-Augustan era”-The monarchy-1649-1660: commonwealthoCivil wars caused this during 1640s—wars all about the balance of poweroMilitary dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell-King Charles II became King of EnglandoThere hadn’t been a King of England for 11 yearsoAtmosphere of celebration; a lot of literary “flowering”1700-1745: Augustan Era-Writers fashioned themselves after the Roman emperor AugustusoThought of themselves as hailing back to the classical years1740s-1790s: Late Augustan or Pre-Romantic or The Age of Johnson era-Samuel Johnson
1-10Heroic Couplets: a rhymed pair of lines in iambic pentameter-Most characteristic form of Augustan poetry-Binary structures-Verse-paragraphs-Augustan thought: not complete in a single couplet-Sometimes known as “closed” couplets = each couplet expresses a complete thoughtoEnd-stopped lines rather than enjambed lines-Rhyme is importantoUsed to show tension-Often satirical-These were definedin the 17thc. by John DrydenoCalled “heroic” because they appeared in his heroic dramasoHave been around since Chaucer; but it’s re-invented—made rules for itThere was a push to be grammatically correct and logicalIambic tetrameter couplets-Informal, possibly comic, both “light” & “tough”Margaret Doody-Excellent critic-Pointed out British invented two-party system in politics-Pointed out the binary structure in couplets1-12Finishing thoughts on Heroic Couplets-Indentation in Rochester’s heroic coupletoHeroic couplets aren’t organized into stanzas—they’re organized into “verse paragraphs”-They are very well-organizedoDiscusses three qualities and then describes the role of each one “A Satyr Against Reason and Mankind”Wit is last and longest; not proportional; half-good and half-bad-“The Vanity of Human Wishes” by JohnsonoBinary: hope and fear, desire and hateoObservation is treated as a person-Iambic Tetrameter CoupletsoMore comic-sounding
oWomen poets often use iambic tetrameter (for feminist pov, too)o“Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift” by Jonathan SwiftPeriodic Sentence: a long and frequently involved (has a lot going on) type of sentence, needing skill to handle it properly, in which the construction begun with the first word is not completed until the last; ideal sentence style until end of Renaissance; composed of suspension (suspense; meaning is not complete till the end), parallelism, balance, and climax-It resembles a vast baroque garden, balanced and beautiful-