18 Brit Lit Notes.docx - 1\/18 1660-1800 is the period were studying The long 18th century New intellectual horizons are opening Brilliant satires are

18 Brit Lit Notes.docx - 1/18 1660-1800 is the period were...

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1/18 1660-1800 is the period we’re studying - “The long 18 th century” - New intellectual horizons are opening - Brilliant satires are being produced o Written during a time of healing o Writers are extremely skeptical about literature and knowledge - Culture wars between more Conservative literary minds and more innovative, forward- thinking literary minds o Swift and Pope are the hold outs for traditional values—with print so cheap, mass marketing is easy o Very first newspapers, periodicals, and novels Lots of new types of writing being invented 1660-1700: The Restoration era - Sometimes called “early-Augustan era” - The monarchy - 1649-1660: commonwealth o Civil wars caused this during 1640s—wars all about the balance of power o Military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell - King Charles II became King of England o There hadn’t been a King of England for 11 years o Atmosphere of celebration; a lot of literary “flowering” 1700-1745: Augustan Era - Writers fashioned themselves after the Roman emperor Augustus o Thought of themselves as hailing back to the classical years 1740s-1790s: Late Augustan or Pre-Romantic or The Age of Johnson era - Samuel Johnson
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1-10 Heroic Couplets: a rhymed pair of lines in iambic pentameter - Most characteristic form of Augustan poetry - Binary structures - Verse-paragraphs - Augustan thought: not complete in a single couplet - Sometimes known as “closed” couplets = each couplet expresses a complete thought o End-stopped lines rather than enjambed lines - Rhyme is important o Used to show tension - Often satirical - These were defined in the 17 th c. by John Dryden o Called “heroic” because they appeared in his heroic dramas o Have been around since Chaucer; but it’s re-invented—made rules for it There was a push to be grammatically correct and logical Iambic tetrameter couplets - Informal, possibly comic, both “light” & “tough” Margaret Doody - Excellent critic - Pointed out British invented two-party system in politics - Pointed out the binary structure in couplets 1-12 Finishing thoughts on Heroic Couplets - Indentation in Rochester’s heroic couplet o Heroic couplets aren’t organized into stanzas—they’re organized into “verse paragraphs” - They are very well-organized o Discusses three qualities and then describes the role of each one “A Satyr Against Reason and Mankind” Wit is last and longest; not proportional; half-good and half-bad - “The Vanity of Human Wishes” by Johnson o Binary: hope and fear, desire and hate o Observation is treated as a person - Iambic Tetrameter Couplets o More comic-sounding
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o Women poets often use iambic tetrameter (for feminist pov, too) o “Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift” by Jonathan Swift Periodic Sentence: a long and frequently involved (has a lot going on) type of sentence, needing skill to handle it properly, in which the construction begun with the first word is not completed until the last; ideal sentence style until end of Renaissance; composed of suspension (suspense; meaning is not complete till the end), parallelism, balance, and climax - It resembles a vast baroque garden, balanced and beautiful -
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