ETIOLOGYAlzheimer Disease is classified in three different forms. The three forms of AD are nonhereditary sporadic or late-onset (70%-90%), early onset familial AD (FAD), and early onset AD (very rare) (Huether and McCance, 2017). An estimated 5.7 million people in the United States live with Alzheimer Disease (Alzheimer Association, 2018). Alzheimer Disease is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGYThe exact cause of Alzheimer Disease is unknown. According to Huether and McCance (2017), early-onset FAD has been linked to three genes with mutations on chromosome 21, abnormal presenilin 1, and abnormal presenilin 2. Late-onset AD is described to the involvement of chromosome 19 with the apolipoprotein E gene-allele 4. The most common is sporadic late-onset AD but, there is no specific genetic affiliation; therefore genetic associated early- and late-onset AD cellular pathology is the same as in sporadic late-onset AD. According to Alzheimer Association (2018), AD is a progressive disease affecting individuals with mild short-term memory deficits leading to total loss in cognitive and executive functions. Alzheimer Disease development has an unknown cause, there is ongoing research being performed to further discover reasoning for this disease process.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (cont.)The brain undergoes pathologic alterations with the accumulation of extracellular or intracellular neuritic plaques. The neuritic plaques consists of amyloid beta protein, intraneural neurofibrillary tangles,