Chapter 8: Memory What is memory? -Memory: faculty for recalling past events and past learning. -Encoding: recording of information in our brain. -Storage: retention of information for later use. -Retrieval: recovery of information when we need it later. -Information processing model: view of memory suggesting that information moves among three memory stores (sensory memory, working memory, long term memory) during encoding, storage, and retrieval. -Parallel distributed processing (PDP) (or connectionist) model: theory of memory suggesting that information is represented in the brain as a pattern of activation across entire neural networks. How do we Encode Information into Memory? -Automatic processing: encoding of information with little conscious awareness or effort. -Effortful processing: encoding of information through careful attention and conscious effort. -Sensory memory: memory involving a detailed, brief sensory image or sound retained for a brief period of time. -Working memory: a short-term memory store that can hold 5-9 items at once. -Rehearsal: conscious repetition of information in an attempt to make sure the information is encoded. -Long term memory: memory system in which we hold all of the information gathered, available for retrieval and use in a new situation or task. -Spaced practice effect: facilitated encoding of material through rehearsal situations spread out over time. -Semantic code: cognitive representation of information or an event based on the meaning of the information. -Mnemonic devices: techniques used to enhance the meaningfulness of information as a way of making them more memorable. -Schemas: knowledge bases that we develop based on prior exposure to similar experiences or other knowledge bases. How do we Store Memories? -Memory span: maximum number of items that can be recalled in the correct order. -Chunking: grouping bits of information together to enhance ability to hold that information in working memory. -Explicit memory: memory that a person can consciously bring to mind, such as your middle name. -Implicit memory: memory that a person is not consciously aware of, such as learned behaviours, skills, and habits. -Semantic memory: a person’s memory of general knowledge of the world. -Episodic memory: a person’s memory of personal events or episodes from his life. How do we Retrieve Memories? -Retrieval cues: words, sights, or other stimuli that remind us of the information we need to retrieve from our memory. -Priming: activation of one piece of information, which in turn leads to activation of another piece, and ultimately to the retrieval of a specific memory. -Recognition tasks: memory tasks in which people are asked to identify whether or not they have seen a particular item before. -Recall tasks: memory tasks in which people are asked to produce information using no or few retrieval cues.