PSCI ALL CHAPTERS Chapter 1: EMPRESARIO: An entrepreneur who made money colonizing areas of the Mexican territory. TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: FEBRUARY 2, 1848 ended the Mexican-American war and recognized Rio Grande as official boundary between Texas and Mexico. TEXAS SIZE: Area totaling 263,513 square miles Chapter 2: Texas Constitutions Texas joined the Union in 1845. Texas independent from 1836-1845Texas was concerned that the federal government would come and take their slaves, and most Texans at the time preferred to leave the Union rather than remain on what they viewed as such unjust grounds.Texas politicians viewed federal government as too intrusive and as a loss of sovereignty at the state level.CONSTITUTIONALGOVERNMENTCONSTITUTION: A written document that outlines the powers of government and the limitations on those powers.oIdeally, a constitution should be brief, flexible document that broadly defines what the government can and cannot do. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY: A government in which the power to govern is derived from the will of the people. (Critical aspect in limiting tyranny)oTexas had to free itself from tyrannical Mexican rule, and Santa Anna was cast as the tyrant. USA constitution has 27 amendments.Texas Constitution is extremely long and specific. The current Texas constitution, sixth since independence from Mexico, reflects Texas’s historical experiences under Mexico and Spain, its reaction to the Civil war and reconstruction, and its experience as a frontier state. THEFEDERALSYSTEMOFTHEUNITEDSTATESFounders believed that government tyranny could be checked by separating the powers of government. The framers divided powers among branches of government as well as between the levels of government. FEDERALISM: A form of government based on the sharing of powers between the levels of government; in the US, between the national and state governments.oCONFEDERAL SYSTEM: A type of government in which the lower units of government retain decision-making authority. oUNITARY SYSTEM: Vests power in a central government. Lower units of government only have power that is granted to them by the central government.
VERTICAL FEDERALISM: The distribution of powers between the national and the state governments.oThe SUPREMACY CLAUSE guarantees that the national government is the supreme law of land. The US Constitution and laws created by the national congress supersede state laws and state constitutions. States can make their own laws within their so long as those laws do not conflict with national laws or the US Constitution. RESERVES POWERSThe tenth amendment provision that all powers not delegated to thenational government belong to the states.