Chapter 16 - Endocrine System-2.docx

Chapter 16 - Endocrine System-2.docx - 1 The Endocrine...

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1 The Endocrine System Module 16.1 Overview of the Endocrine System Term Definition Paracrine A chemical messenger secreted into the extracellular fluid to influence nearby target cells. Autocrine A chemical messenger that influences the function of the same cell or cell type that produced and secreted it. Endocrine gland A gland that secretes a hormone or hormones directly into the bloodstream to influence the functions of distant target cells. Neuroendocrine organ An organ that consists of nervous tissue and secretes hormones. Target cell Hormones that affect particular cells. Receptor A protein within a membrane that binds to a ligand. Up-regulation The level of a particular hormone rises in the blood, certain target cells will produce more receptors for that hormone. Down-regulation Target cells decrease the number of receptors specific for that hormone. Amino acid-based hormones A chemical messenger consisting of one or more amino acids; most are hydrophilic and bind plasma membrane receptors. Steroid hormones Chemical messengers derived from cholesterol, with a core of hydrocarbon rings; steroid hormones are hydrophobic and interact with plasma membrane or intracellular receptors. G protein Intracellular enzyme complexes involved in a variety of second messenger systems. 307
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308 Practicing A&P: Active-Learning Workbook Describe It: Mechanisms of Action of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Hormones Write out the steps of the processes by which hydrophobic and hydrophilic hormones exert their effects in Figure CW16.2. In addition, label and color-code all key components of these processes. Module 16.2: The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Build Your Own Glossary Term Definition Hypothalamus The small anterior and inferior component of the diencephalon of the brain; responsible for many homeostatic functions, producing the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, and producing, releasing and inhibiting hormones that affect the anterior pituitary gland. Anterior pituitary The anterior portion of the pituitary gland that is derived from glandular epithelium; produces many tropic hormones and growth hormones. Posterior pituitary The posterior portion of the pituitary gland that is derived from nervous tissue; stores ADH and oxytocin produced by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic- hypophyseal portal system A group of vessels that collects blood from capillaries in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that has a specialized blood supply that allows them to delivery their hormones to target cells. Hormone binds to an intracellular receptor and enters the nucleus of the Nuclear pore Hormone-receptor complex interacts with the DNA to initiate a cellular change Intracellular receptor Hormone Hydrophobic hormone diffuses into the target cell Hydrophilic hormone (first messenger) binds to its receptor in the plasma membrane.
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