Chapters 6-8.pdf - ER: manufacturing of secreted proteins...

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ER: manufacturing of secreted proteins and membrane lipidsGolgi: center ofmodifying, manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping proteinsMajor site of carbohydrate synthesisProteins that are translated in the RER will be post translating modified thecompartments of the Golgi apparatus. Sugars can be added/ removed, etc. Each Golgicomponent differs from the others by the proteins and (enzymes) and other molecules itcontains. Proteins and other macromolecules move through the Golgi stacks by vesiclebudding and fusing (because the stacks donot share an interior space) Golgi stacks arediscrete compartments. Vesicle budding and fusing can happen in both the "forward"direction (ER -> Cis -> Trans) or the retrograde direction (Golgi -> RER)If it function in the RER doesn’t mean it won’t get modifiedTargeted to its final destinationEnzyme names often end in -ace. Enzyme names often reveal information about afunction the enzyme carries out, the location it works in, the substrate it works, theproduct it makes. Enzyme operation is reversible. They can carry out the reaction inboth directions. Concentration of the molecules dictates which direction the reactionproceeds inConcentration dictates where the enzyme goesLysosomes are organelles that carry out digestion of all macromolecules. The 40 or soenzymes work optimally at a low pH (-5.0). If any of the enzymes find their way backinto the cytoplasm they don’t digest it
Autophagy involves lysosomesCells fuse phagosomes with materials taken from the outside the cell to the lysosome todigest the materialAlso cells can rid themselves of old tired organelles by making a membranecompartment around the organelles (autophagosome) and then fusing thatcompartment to a lysosomeAUTOPHAGYEnergy is defined as the capacity to do work, to move matter against an opposing force(gravity or friction) Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and potential energy is storedenergy, like in chemical bonds, energy that we can move at a later time. Energy can betransformed from one energy to another but cannot be made out of nothing.ATP is own source of potential energyThermodynamics: The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection ofmatter2 Laws:1ST LAW: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed but it can be transferred ortransformed. This law is called thePrinciple of the Conservation of Energy.2ND LAW: One usable form of energy cannot be completely converted into anotherusable form (some energy lost to surroundings as heat)Every energy transfer increases the disorder (entropy) of the universeEntropy is a measure of randomness or disorderThe quantity of the energy in the universe is constant, but the quality is notNot all energy can be used. Total energy(ENTHALPY (H))= usable energy (FREEENERGY (G)) + unusable energy (ENTROPY: (S))H=G+TS (keep temp constant)As we are interested in usable energy, we rewrite equationsWe are interested in the energy that is "free" to do work. GWe rewrite the equation:Delta G= Delta H - T Delta SDelta = change

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Term
Spring
Professor
Brinkworth,Jessica
Tags
Enzyme, Energy, Chemical reaction, Adenosine triphosphate

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