The Brain:•Basic brain anatomy•Parts of brain and nervous system•Brain evolution: What makes primates and humans unique?•Primates generally but humans specifically•Humans energy paradox? How can we explain it?•Primates have large brains•Above trendline – individuals with larger brains•Encephalization quotient = observed / expected brain quotient•Brain size relative to body size•Primates above the line (larger brain for their body size than expected as opposed toother animals)•Humans have largest brain size when accounting for body size•Humans have largest overall brain? NO•The Humans Energetic Paradox: How do we fuel the Human Adaptive Suite?•Births per year? Humans•Brain size? Humans•Lifespan longest? Humans•Get the trend•All of that takes energy•We give birth quickly, have big brains, and we live a long time. How do we explain that?Food shareand grandmothering (kin selection which reduce interbirth intervals) andfaster metabolismthat increases total energy spenditure•Food sharing and faster metabolism = larger brain, longer life•Life History:•The tradeoffs!