Arginine-Vasopressin.docx - [CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 Arginine...

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[ CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 ] Arginine Vasopressin/antidiuretic Hormone - Basal plasma and vasopressin normally ranges from 0.5 – 2 pg/µL - In concert with atrial natriuretic hormone, thirst and renal- angiotensin-aldosterone axis, ADH works to maintain blood pressure, volume and tonicity. - Normal plasma osmolality ranges from 180-295 mOsm/kg and plasma sodium from 135-145 mmol/L - It can be determined directly by measuring the plasma freezing- depression or the plasma vapor pressure - It can also be determined indirectly by measuring the plasma sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucoseand applying the following formula. Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland and Pancreas Review - Endocrine system - Classes of hormone - Mechanisms of hormones - Hypothalamus - Pituitary gland - Pancreas Tissue origin Hormones produced Hypothalamus TRH,GnRH,CRF Anterior pituitary TSH,ACTH,LH,FSH, Prolactin, GH Posterior Pituitary Vasopressin and Oxytocin Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine, norephinephrine Adrenal cortex Cortisol, aldosterone Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone Thyroid T3,T4 and calcitonin Pancreas Glucagon, insulin Ovaries estrogen Classes of hormone Glycoprotein - glycoproteins are more than 200 AA long - FSH,HCG,TSH and erythropoietin Polypeptides - Short polypeptides are small proteins - Contains all hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitarty, heart, thymus and digestive system - ACTh,ADH,GH,Angiotensin, calcitonin, cholecystokinin, gastrin, glucagon, insulin, oxytocin, PTH, proclatin and somatostatin Steroids - Molecules that have cholesterol as common precursor - Produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries and placenta - Water insoluble and circulate, not bound to protein carrier - Include reproductive hormones - Plasma half life o 4-120 minutes Amines - Derived from amino acids and they are intermediary between steroid and proteins based hormones - Made from tyrosine or tryptophan - Tyrosine hormones include thyroid hormones and cathecholamines - Ex. Epinephrine, norephinephrine, T3,T4, serotonin,tryptophan hormones include melatonin Hormone Receptor Protein-kinase receptors
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[ CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 ] - Contain intrinsic-hormone-activated tyrosine kinase activity - These receptors serves as direct catalysts of phophorylation reaction - No intracellular second messengers are needed - Ex. o Insulin-receptor -2 alpha subunits and 2 beta subunits joined by disulfide bridges o Alpha subunit- extracellular, where the hormone attaches the receptor o Beta subunits- have an ATP binding sites Tropic hormone hypothalamus Hormone Structure Action TRH 3 AA Releases TSH and prolactin GnRH 10AA Releases FSH and LH CRH 41AA Releases ACTH GRH 44AA Releases GH 44 and 28 AA Inhibits GH and TSH release (additional effects on gut and
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