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Introduction to Logic

Introduction to Logic - Introduction to Logic What is an...

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Introduction to Logic Introduction to Logic
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What is an argument? “An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition” (Michael Palin) i.e. A bunch of statements: some of those sentences are meant as reasons to think one or more of the others is true Whether its an argument depends on the intention of the person making the statements – The difference between a bad argument and something that isn’t an argument is that person’s intention
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What is an argument? An argument is different from the following things: Fighting Sets of statements of facts not intended to support each other Contradiction YES IT IS DIFFERENT FROM AN ARGUMENT! NO IT ISN”T!!
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What goes into an argument? One or more sentence(s) that needs to be established the conclusion One or more sentence(s) that are meant as reasons to think the conclusion(s) are true. the premises a relationship between the premises and the conclusion that makes the premises count (or not count) as a reason to think the conclusion is true
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Some clues for identifying arguments One situation where you’re probably hearing/reading an argument is where It’s obvious the person speaking/writing is trying to get a point across; they are trying to get you to believe what they are saying is true, or to agree with them. Usually people do this by offering some reasons to think they’re right In which case the things they’re saying usually can be formally organized into an argument
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Some clues for identifying arguments Another way to identify an argument is to look for argument words Blah, blah and  blah-dy blah, Therefore Blah and Blah
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Some clues for identifying arguments Another way to identify an argument is to look for argument words Since  blah, blah  and blah; I  suppose blah  must be true
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Some clues for identifying arguments Another way to identify an argument is to look for argument words Blah and Blah,  so  Blah
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Some clues for identifying arguments BEFORE THE  PREMISES BEFORE THE  CONCLUSION THEREFORE SO PROBABLY SINCE THEN BECAUSE THUS
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Which of the following are arguments?
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The Democratic party has a pro-choice platform. The Democratic party has a pro affirmative action platform Therefore, the Democratic party has a liberal platform. YES
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The Republican Party has a pro-life platform. The Republican Party has a tax-cutting platform. The Republican party candidate for president was George W Bush. NO
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If the Democrats win the election, there will be a tax increase because the Democrats will increase the amount of money spent on public programs. Public programs require the use of additional public resources. The use of additional public resources requires a tax increase.
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