Chapter 2 Notes.pdf

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Chapter 2: Management History Historical Background of Management Studying history can help you understand today’s management theories and practices and help you see what has and has not worked. Organized endeavors directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling activities have existed for thousands of years. Proof that management existed in ancient times: Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China: tangible evidence that projects of tremendous scope, employing thousands of people, were completed in ancient times. Someone had to plan what was to be done, organize people and materials to do it, lead and direct the workers, and impose some controls to ensure that everything was done as planned. Old Assyrian Kingdom Form of multinational corporation After 2000 BC Many attributes: hierarchy/ employment of foreign workers/ behaviors associated with production and market development. Venice 1400s Major economic and trade center Used warehouse and inventory systems to keep track of materials, human resource management functions to manage the labor force, and an accounting system to keep track of revenues and costs Two events are significant to management history Adam Smith published “The Wealth of Nations” 1776 He argued the economic advantages that organizations and society would gain from the division of labor or job specialization. It is the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks Pin Industry example: Smith claimed that 10 individuals, each doing a specialized task, could produce about 48,000 pins per day among them. If each person worked alone, performing each task separately, it would be quite an accomplishment to produce even 10 pins per day. Division of labor increased productivity by: Increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity
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Saving time lost in changing tasks Creating labor-saving inventions and machinery Industrial Revolution Starting in the eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power it became more economical to manufacture goods in factories at home. These large, efficient factories needed someone to forecast demand, ensure that enough material was on hand to make products, assign tasks to people, direct da ily activities… Those managers would need formal theories to guide them in running these large organizations It was not until the early 1900s that the first steps were taken toward developing such theories. 4 major approaches to management theory: Classical: Scientific Management and General Administrative Quantitative Behavioral: Hawthorne Studies Contemporary: Systems and Contingency Approach Classical Approach The first studies of management in the 20 th century emphasized rationality and making organizations and workers as efficient as possible.
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