A large fraction of all chemical reactions that occur in cells fall into one of four broad categories:protonation/de-protonation*isomerizationhydrolysis/dehydrationoxidation-reduction**Protonation and deprotonation reactions are sometimes not treated as chemical reactions since they require the movement of only a single proton. However, the protonated and deprotonated forms of functional groups have very different physical and chemical properties, andtherefore act very different from each other biologically.Thus, we will consider protonation/deprotonation processesto be chemical reactions.
Example of a Protonation/Deprotonation:deprotonation(a half-reaction)protonation(a half-reaction)Protonation-deprotonation reactions do not need an enzyme to proceed very rapidly.A protonation half-reaction is always coupled to a deprotonation half-reaction to produce the complete reaction.completereaction*Sum of the 2 half-reactions
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