535_final[1] - Background You have been asked to provide...

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Unformatted text preview: December 13, 2005 Background: You have been asked to provide space environment analysis and space weather forecasting for the operations group in an agency satellite facility. The facility manages spacecraft at a variety of altitudes and orbits in near—Eath and geosynchronous space. You are scheduled to give a general briefing about the space environment and space weather to the operations staff on-l'vlonday November 3, 2W4. 1. {21} points] On November '3', Zflfldi at lfiflfi UT an X2 solar flare occurs at the heliographio location of 9 (N) and i? (W) on the Sun. It is followed an hour later by a halo event at llflo UT. Your team asks for an immediate, preliminaryr assessment of the impacts of the flare to the spacecraft fleet. Briefly describe {HE page or less) the background conditions related to this flare: | I . ASTE 535 Final Exam | | a) what part of the solar cycle, including the solar cycle number, the flare is occurring in; b) the rudimentary physics of why the flare is occurring, including the magnetic field dynamical process that have led to the flare as well as the observable physical region from which the flare is emanating; c) the irradiance wavelengths over which the flare will he geoeffective [Earth impacting]; and d) any evidence as to whether or not the flare may produce geomagnetic disturbances, solar energetic particles {SEPs}, and other charged particles at the Earth’s environment. Xroy FlUI—‘t’ minute dfltfl) Begin: aflflq. NOV j; won UTC I _ GDESlD ‘llIl-HE U A GDES'IE Ill—Eli] A EDEElU CI 5—40 A GUEST? 0.5-4D A Nov ? Nov B ‘ Nov 9 Nov 1i) Universal Time Updated sod-4 NOV 9 23:55:05 are Homgsse Boulder, on List 2. [31} points} A sensor analyst is making Eardt—limb and nadir (down—looking) airglow measurements for different atmosphere regions from an instrument on one of the facilities LEO spacecraft. She has asked you to define the non- latitudellongitude specific, local noon neutral atmosphere environment at 211] km for November 8, 2W4. An orbit dynamics analyst has also asked you for the daily mass density at 2“) km to be used as reference value for the same epoch. From the SDLAREdflo model which provides the F113,? solar proxy values, you know that daily Flflfl was 124$! and 31-day FltiliIr was lflfifl on November 8, 2W4. Assuming solar minimal-n _t_:_on_dit_ion_s_for the reference altitude values for neutral species, calculate the concentrations {atoms or molecules cm") of atomic oxygen, [ID],I molecular nitrogen, {Ni}, and molecular oxygen, [0,] and provide a subsolar point total mass density (kg m'i'} for this date at 211} ltm altitude. ‘ ' ' "" m _ " l 3. (25 points} During the night of November 1“, 2W4 you are on the red-eye flight returning to Los Angeles from a meeting in Madrid Spain via commercial air. The ‘ non-stop, great circle route passes over Goose Bay (Newfoundland) Canada and, at that waypoint, you feel the plane make a substantial southward turn. Being seated at a window on the right side of the plane, you look out into the night sky and see an extraordinary curtain aurora overhead. The pilot announces, without explanation, dtat the flight is being diverted to a new route. You are a bit concerned with this unusual detour so you decide to find out yourself what is happening. Assuming the diversion is due to the aurora above the plane, you want to know where in the near-Earth space environment the charged particles creating the aurora are likely to be coming from since this will tell you something about their extraterrestrial source. Knowing that the L-shell of aurorae at this latitude will give you information about their source particles, you want to determine the L-shell for your current position at Goose Bay. Recalling that, in the transformation of geographic to geomagnetic coordinates, the magnetic latitude, ‘1’, is sometimes called the invariant fotr'mde', ‘1‘, determine the L—shell at Goose Bay. You use the plane’s commercial phone at your seat to make internet connectivity and, doing a Google search on Goose Bay, you find the geographic latitude is 53°19'DQ”N (53.31915? N] and longitude is 6D°25'33"W (-dfl.425833" E} and the updated IGRF (Zfltltl) geographic location of the north magnetic dipole axis is TEEN, TLoW. Thus, a] calculate the invariant latitude, T; I!) calculate the L-shell at Goose Bay; c} explain where the charged particles are likely to be coming from including which part of the magnetosphere; d} explain which radiation belt the charged particles have been populating; and e] explain from which extraterrestrial source the charged particles likely have originated. - (25 points} Intelsat, Ltd. said that its Intelsat Americas—T {IA—T) satellite experienced a sudden and unexpected electrical distribution anomaly that caused the permanent loss of the spacecraft on 28 November QUE-‘4 at approximately 2:30 am EST {Will} LITE}. Do 2 December 2on4, Intelsat announced that “As a result of an intensive effort by the Intelsat technical team, contact and control of the satellite has been regained". The exact cause of the anomaly is still being investigated, in cooperation with Space Systemstoral and Loral Skynet, each of whom participated in the recovery effort. Other Loral LS—lBrle models that experienced similar problems are PAS—‘5 (total loss of power in 20134) and PAS-T {25 percent power loss in 20131). IA—fit’l‘elstar E- suffered a control processor failure in QUE-l, but no service loss occurred. The operations group at the facility you are supporting has asked you to write a short position statement on a possible cause of the anomaly. Knowing the history of other major electrical anomalies at geosynchronous orbit, and taking into account the substantial electron flux persisting after the November 7 2W4 flarelCleE {see example figure below for the flareiCME event; also, from NOAMSEC “greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at high -levels for the entire summary period (Nov ’5' — 16]” and “greater than 2 Meirr electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at high ieveis every day this period (Nov 22 — 30) except for 25 November], describe in one paragraph a possible cause of Lhe lA—T anomaly. Include: a] a broad description of the Sun-Earth space environmental conditions in November mm; b} a specific description of the space environment conditions at the IA-T orbit in November 2W4; c} an identification of the type of possible damage that would be a leading candidate for the Lat-“l anomaly, considering that the types can be broadly described by surface impacting effects [photon-surface interactions, electron-surface interactions, ion-surface interactions, unbiased or hissed charging), and penetrating effects (radiation attracts); d} alter selecting the leading anomaly candidate for [At-T, describe the physical mechanism or process by which damage could have occurred; and I!) cite any lines of evidence of analogous anomalies in similar spacecraft. SateHito Environment 3 cl in: 2004 Nov T DIIID UTE Proton Flux I-‘Jaetran Flux 'ifl'lfl‘ifit'rfl! um seas Hp Estimated Kp Hm? Nova _ _ Hwfl Hale Updated 206-!- Horv 9 23:56:16 LITE MOWER} Boulder. CD USA ...
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535_final[1] - Background You have been asked to provide...

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