100%(9)9 out of 9 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 4 pages.
189JOURNAL OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING / JULY 2002Leininger / CULTURE CARE THEORYCulture Care Theory: A Major Contributionto Advance Transcultural NursingKnowledge and PracticesMADELEINE LEININGER, PhD, LHD, DS, CTN, FAAN, FRCNAThis article is focused on the major features of the CultureCare Diversity and Universality theory as a central contrib-uting theory to advance transcultural nursing knowledge andto use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consul-tation. It remains one of the oldest, most holistic, and mostcomprehensive theories to generate knowledge of diverse andsimilar cultures worldwide. The theory has been a powerfulmeans to discover largely unknown knowledge in nursing andthe health fields. It provides a new mode to assure culturallycompetent, safe, and congruent transcultural nursing care.The purpose, goal, assumptive premises, ethnonursingresearch method, criteria, and some findings are highlighted.This article is focused on the 2001 Pittsburgh Precon-ference theme “Major Contributions of Book Authors toTranscultural Nursing Knowledge and Practices.” As thefounder of the discipline and author of 28 books and 220 pub-lished articles, I hold that my Culture Care Diversity and Uni-versality theory has made a significant contribution to estab-lish and advance transcultural nursing research knowledgeand practice since the mid-1950s. This article is a brief synop-sis of culture care theory with its unique features and majorcontributions to support transcultural nursing as a disciplineand practice field.In establishing this new discipline, different lines of think-ing and practice were essential. It necessitated futuristicvision, risk taking, commitment, patience, and leadership tochallenge many traditional nursing ideas and practices.Unquestionably new knowledge and practices were essentialfor nurses to function in a rapidly changing multiculturalworld. Substantive theory-based research knowledge wasgreatly needed with a global and comparative focus to care forpeople of diverse cultures. Culturally based care knowledgewas the major missing area in nursing in the mid-20th centuryand still is in some places in the world. I coined the constructofculturally congruent care, which is the central goal of thetheory.In my first two books,Nursing and Anthropology(1970)andTranscultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research,and Practice(1978), the nature, rationale, need, and theoreti-cal base were given to establish transcultural nursing. Nursesneeded in-depth knowledge of cultures with an anthropologi-cal view and in-depth, culturally based care phenomena. Iheld that care was the essence of nursing and had meaningwithin cultural contexts. Care was not fully known and valuedin nursing, and so it was a challenge to get nurses interested inthe Culture Care theory in the 1950s and 1960s as the medicalmind-body treatments and symptoms held nurses’ interestsand practices (Leininger, 1991). Moreover, many nursesbelieved care was “too soft, feminine, and nonscientific” and“culture was irrelevant and unnecessary.” With my persis-