297Alternative hypothesis a statement that is accepted if the null hypothesis is rejected. It is usually stated in a positive format such as one value is significantly larger than another value or one value is significantly associated with another value.Analysis of selected cases case analysis involves the study of a specific situation similar to the current research problem. It is particularly valuable for complex research problems.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) a statistical analysis technique designed to determine if three or more values are significantly different and analyzes their variances. This is a useful tech-niques for model building and in experimental research.Appendices a report usually includes several appendices that contain the data gathering instrument, detailed findings, quota-tions, and in some cases, more detailed statistical information that some managers may be interested in.Applied business research used to answer a specific question that has direct application to a particular business.Attitudes refer to a person’s feelings, convictions, or beliefs for an object, idea, or individual.Autonomy people’s freedom to make their own decisions and to choose the activities they wish to engage in and which activities to avoid.Awareness and knowledge referring to what subjects do or do not know about an object of investigation.Basic business research Business research that is exploratory in nature, and is not directly applicable to a specific business problem. Instead, basic research expands our knowledge and understanding of an issue.Behaviors actual actions taken by respondents.Big data large quantities of information collected by an organization on constituents such as the number, types, and amounts of transactions from customers of a large retail store. Such data is usually beyond the capability of some data soft-ware and requires specially designed software to provide anal-ysis of the data.Bivariate association a measure of the relationship between two variables to determine if there is a relationship and if so, the strength of that relationship.Business research the function that links the business to information and knowledge that can be used for determining, implementing, and evaluating the opportunities and goals for a firm.Causal research research that determines if one variable (the independent variable) causes a change in another variable (thedependent variable).Central tendency calculated measures that are used to sum-marize data by using a number to represent the shape or typi-cal values of a data set such as the mean, median or mode.Clarify an answer that tells something specific is much more valuable than getting several answers that are vague. The interviewer’s objective should be to clarify why the respondent gave a particular answer to one of the questions.