2 Forces for change: External and Internal
are: Market place,
Government laws and regulations, Technology, Labor market, Economic changes.
are: Changes in organizational strategy, Workforce changes, New
equipment, Employee attitudes.
”Calm Waters” Smile-
Change is a response to a break in status quo, Needed only
in occasional situations, Future is predictable (past prologue), Punctuates long
periods of calm/stability.
Lewin = Unfreezing
Unfreezing accomplished by
: Increasing driving forces (direct behavior away from
status quo), Decreasing restraining forces (hinder movement from equilibrium),
Combination of these two approaches.
“White-Water Rapids” Smile-
Stability and predictability don’t exist, Face constant
change-bordering on chaos, Requires flexibility-quick response to changing
conditions-comfort with ambiguity.
Complex Adaptive System-
Study of how order emerges organically from
interactions among actors, Open system environment interacts with system
(continuously, unpredictably, nonlinearly), Large number of agents and interactions-
simple/flex rules-decentralized, Self-organizing-emergent properties, Small changes
can create big results.
Gladwell’s “Tipping Point” (MB)-
Attempts to explain why major changes often
happen suddenly/unexpectedly-like an epidemic spread of an infectious disease, A
few people falling into distinct types initiate the spread of the “change
virus”(Connectors-spreaders of info, Mavens-collectors of info, Salesmen-
persuaders/influencers), Self-organizing mechanism (Global level patterns emerge
solely from interactions among lower level system components, Rules of interaction
among component use only local information)
Transactional vs Transformational
Transactional Change = Evolutionary-
Change is a gradual, continuous
process that is operational, and focused on only a portion of the system.
can come from anywhere
Transformational Change = Revolutionary-
Change is discontinuous, episodic,
strategic and focused on the entire system.
Leadership must come from the top.
Phases of Change Implementation Process: Pre-launch (Identify/Plan), Launch
(Do), Post-Launch (check), Sustaining the change (Act).
Leader’s Role: Pre-Launch
Leader self-examination, Gathering information from
the external env, Establishing the need for change (‘burning platform’) based on data,
Providing clarity regarding vision and direction, Translate change vision into required
competencies and behaviors (Source: Sapir)
Leader’s Role: Launch:
Translate change vision into competencies and behaviors:
Creativity/Innovation/Thought Leadership; Competency:
The ability to
develop, sponsor or support the introduction of new and improved methods,
products, procedures, or technologies; Behaviors:
1. Displays original thinking, 2.
Meets challenges with resourcefulness, 3. Generates suggestions for improving