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W. Edwards Demin discussed in his book, The New Economics, the Theory of Profound Knowledge. He stated that “the only wat to determine if changes have been beneficial is through measurement, which consists of three steps: determining and defining key indicators, collecting an appropriate amount of data, and analyzing and interpreting these data (Lighter, 2011). Deming also believed it is based on the principle that each organization is composed of a system of interrelated processes and people which make upsystem’s components. The success of all workers within the system is dependent on management’s capability to orchestrate the delicate balance of each component for optimization of the entire system (Berry, 2011). The four parts that Deming believed made up profound knowledge consisted of: Appreciation fora system, Knowledge about variation, Theory of knowledge, and Knowledge of psychology (Bowen, 2010). These four elements of Deming’s theory create expectations for managers to