1120F17Ch18Neuro.pptx - Neurotransmitters A...

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Neurotransmitters A neurotransmitter is a chemical compound that transmits an impulse from a nerve to a target cell. Target cells maybe another nerve cell, a muscle cell, or a gland cell. A nerve cell consists of a cell body and filaments called axons and dendrites that form junctions with nearby nerve cells to transmit nerve impulses.
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Neurons A neuron, also known as a A cell body and numerous filaments called dendrites at one end. an axon that ends at the axon terminal at the opposite end. junctions called a synapse formed between the axon terminals and dendrites of another cell. nerve cell , consists of
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Neurotransmitters at the Synapse When an electrical signal reaches the axon terminal of a nerve cell, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse and taken up by the dendrites in nearby cells. electrical impulses and chemical transmitters move information through a network of nerve cells in a very short period of Within a nerve cell, neurotransmitters are synthesized and stored in vesicles at the end of the axon terminal.
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Neurotransmitters at the Synapse Neurotransmitters can be excitatory, stimulating the receptors to send more impulses inhibitory, decreasing the activity of the receptors The binding of an excitatory neurotransmitter opens ion channels in nearby nerve cells, releasing more neurotransmitters.
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Termination of Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters can be removed from the receptors in different ways: 1. The neurotransmitter diffuses away from the synapse. 2. Enzymes in the receptors that break down the neurotransmitter 3. Reuptake returns the neurotransmitters to the vesicles where it is stored.
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Amine Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters contain nitrogen atoms as amines and alkylammonium ions; they are synthesized from compounds such as amino acids obtained from our diets.
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