1120F15Ch21s.pptx - CHAPTER 21 Nucleic Acids and Protein...

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CHAPTER 21 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
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Nucleic Acids The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are comprised of monomers called nucleotides that consist of a Base with M Pentose sugar Phosphate group
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Bases The bases in DNA and RNA are derivatives of the heterocyclic amines pyrimidin or purine. Pyrimidines: C, T, U Purines: A, G
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Bases in DNA and RNA DNA contains the bases same in both DNA and RNA different in DNA and RNA RNA contains the bases same in both DNA and RNA different in DNA and RNA
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Pentose Sugars The pentose (five-carbon) sugar in R NA is ribose in D NA is deoxyribose with no O atom on carbon 2′ has carbon atoms numbered with primes to distinguish them from the atoms in the bases.
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A nucleo s ide Base + sugar; no phosphate has a base linked by a glycosidic bond to C1′of a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose). Naming nucleosides: Purine base (A or G) + sugar ends in osine Pyrimidine (C, T, U) + sugar  ends in idine Nucleosides
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A nucleotide has a phosphate group attached to the C5′ —OH group of a nucleoside. The bond formed between the sugar and phosphate groups is called a phosphoester bond Naming: Add -5 prime monophosphate behind the nucleoside name Nucleotides
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Nucleotides of Purines
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Nucleotides of Pyrimidines
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Names of Nucleosides and Nucleotides
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AMP, ADP, and ATP Adding phosphate groups to AMP forms the diphosphate ADP and the triphosphate ATP. (ADP )
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Learning Check Give the name and abbreviation for the following molecule, and list its base and sugar.
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Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids In the primary structure of nucleic acids , nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester bonds. the 3ʹ—OH group of the sugar in one nucleotide forms an ester bond to the phosphate group on the 5ʹ carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide.
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A nucleic acid polymer has a free 5ʹ-phosphate group at one end and a free 3ʹ—OH group at the other end. is read from using the letters of the bases. segment shown here is read as follows. 5ʹ—A—C—G—T—3ʹ Structure of Nucleic Acids
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Example of RNA The primary structure of RNA is a single strand of nucleotides. consists of the bases linked by 3ʹ—5ʹ phosphodiester bonds between ribose and phosphate.
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Double Helix of DNA The DNA structure is a double helix that consists of two strands of nucleotides that form a double helix structure like a spiral staircase. Has hydrogen bonds between the bases A&T and G&C. has bases along one strand that complement the bases along the other.
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Complementary Base Pairs: A and T DNA contains complementary base pairs in which guanine is always linked by 3 hydrogen bonds to cytosine (A−T) .
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Complementary Base Pairs: G and C DNA contains complementary base pairs in which is always linked by hydrogen bonds to (G−C).
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Learning Check Write the complementary base sequence for the matching strand in the DNA section shown below.
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