Abdul Qadeer Khan.docx - Abdul Qadeer Khan[note 1 NI HI...

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Abdul Qadeer Khan , [note 1] NI , HI , FPAS i / ˌ ɑː b ˈ d ʊ l k ɑː d r ɪə k ɑː n / ( Urdu : ناخ ریدقلا دبع رٹکاڈ ; b. 1 April 1936), also known by some in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan (Urdu: ناتسک ک اپ نسحم , lit. " Benefactor of Pakistan "), more popularly known as A. Q. Khan , is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer , colloquially regarded as the founder of HEU based Gas- centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project . [2] He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, being both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects . Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project , he made major contributions in molecular morphology , physical martensite , and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics . Abdul Qadeer Khan was one of Pakistan's top scientists, [3] and was involved in the country's various scientific programs until his dismissal. [3] In January 2004, Khan was officially summoned for a debriefing on his suspicious activities in other countries after the United States provided evidence to the Pakistan Government , and confessed it a month later. [3] [4] [5] Some have alleged that these activities were sanctioned by the authorities, though the Pakistan government sharply dismissed the claims. [6] [7] After years of official house arrest, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) on 6 February 2009 declared Abdul Qadeer Khan to be a free citizen of Pakistan, allowing him free movement inside the country. The verdict was rendered by Chief Justice Sardar Muhammad Aslam . [8] In September 2009, expressing concerns over the Islamabad High Court 's decision to end all security restrictions on Khan, the United States warned that Khan still remains a "serious proliferation risk" [9] Early life[ edit ] Khan was born in 1936 in Bhopal , British India , into an Urdu -speaking Pashtun family . [10] His mother, Zulekha (née Begum) was a housewife ; his father, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, was an alumnus of Nagpur University and an academic who served in the British Indian Education ministry who permanently settled the family in Bhopal State after his retirement in 1935. [11] After the violent partition of India in 1947, his family emigrated from India to Pakistan in 1952; only to be settle in Karachi , Sindh . [10] Briefly attending the D.J. Science College , he enrolled in Karachi University in 1956 to study physics. [12] [13] In 1960, he graduated with degree in physics with minor in mathematics , where his degree concentration was in solid-state physics . [14] For a short time, Khan worked for the city government as an inspector of weights and measures . [10] In 1961, he went to Germany to study the metallurgy at the Technical University in Berlin ( TU Berlin ) but made a transfer to Delft University of Technology in Belgium in 1965.
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  • Spring '18
  • Hassan Grewal
  • Nuclear weapon, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto, Abdul Qadeer Khan, Abdul Ghafoor Khan

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