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CHAPTER 5 ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEMS A good business practice is the one in which the production cost is minimized without sacrificing the quality. This is not any different in the power sector as well. The main aim here is to reduce the production cost while maintaining the voltage magnitudes at each bus. In this chapter we shall discuss the economic operation strategy along with the turbine-governor control that are required to maintain the power dispatch economically. A power plant has to cater to load conditions all throughout the day, come summer or winter. It is therefore illogical to assume that the same level of power must be generated at all time. The power generation must vary according to the load pattern, which may in turn vary with season. Therefore the economic operation must take into account the load condition at all times. Moreover once the economic generation condition has been calculated, the turbine- governor must be controlled in such a way that this generation condition is maintained. In this chapter we shall discuss these two aspects. 5.1 ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM In an early attempt at economic operation it was decided to supply power from the most efficient plant at light load conditions. As the load increased, the power was supplied by this most efficient plant till the point of maximum efficiency of this plant was reached. With further increase in load, the next most efficient plant would supply power till its maximum efficiency is reached. In this way the power would be supplied by the most efficient to the least efficient plant to reach the peak demand. Unfortunately however, this method failed to minimize the total cost of electricity generation. We must therefore search for alternative method which takes into account the total cost generation of all the units of a plant that is supplying a load. 5.1.1 Economic Distribution of Loads between the Units of a Plant To determine the economic distribution of a load amongst the different units of a plant, the variable operating costs of each unit must be expressed in terms of its power output. The fuel cost is the main cost in a thermal or nuclear unit. Then the fuel cost must be expressed in terms of the power output. Other costs, such as the operation and maintenance costs, can also be expressed in terms of the power output. Fixed costs, such as the capital cost, depreciation etc., are not included in the fuel cost. The fuel requirement of each generator is given in terms of the Rupees/hour. Let us define the input cost of an unit- i , f i in Rs./h and the power output of the unit as P i . Then the input cost can be expressed in terms of the power output as i i i i i i c P b P a f 2 2 Rs./h (5.1)
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2.28 The operating cost given by the above quadratic equation is obtained by approximating the power in MW versus the cost in Rupees curve. The incremental operating cost of each unit is then computed as i i i i i i b P a dP df Rs./MWh (5.2)
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  • Fall '17
  • brhanu desta
  • Power, Electricity generation, Electric power transmission, Electricity distribution

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