HEMA LAB COMPRE.docx - HEMA LAB COMPRE ANALYSIS 1 METHODS...

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HEMA LAB COMPRE ANALYSIS 1: METHODS OF BLOOD COLLECTION - There are several methods of obtaining blood specimens which can be done through skin puncture, venipuncture, and arterial puncture o Capillary blood – skin puncture o Venous blood – venipuncture - Arterial blood extraction is not included in the current medical technology practice in the Philippines I. SKIN PUNCTURE - Tip of the third or fourth fingers or the earlobe in adults Procedure (Adults) 1. Cleanse site using 70% isopropyl alcohol 2. Air-dry or pat-dry with sterile cotton 3. Puncture preferred site with a sterile lancet, puncture is ideally 2-3 mm in depth 4. Wipe off first drop of blood Procedure (Infants) 1. Puncture the anterior rim of the posterior aspect of the hell or big toe only after a suitable preparation 2. Follow steps 1-4 for skin puncture for adults II. VENIPUNCTURE - Essential for tests that require anticoagulation and when a large quantity of blood is needed - Most convenient method of blood collection - Venous blood is usually obtained from the antecubital veins (median cubital, cephalic, basilic veins) Syringe Method - Apply tourniquet 3-4 inches above the puncture site in a half-knot manner to congest the vein - Cleanse puncture site with 70% isopropyl alcohol; let dry - Puncture vein with a sterile 20-21 gauge needle attached to a syringe at a 15º angle and a depth of about 0.5-1 cm NOTE: Procedure for Evacuated Tube Method is similar but uses a two-way needle attached to an adaptor in place of a syringe with a needle. COLOR ADDITIVE FUNCTION Plain Red None Lavender Liquid K 2 EDTA (glass) Spray-dried K 2 EDTA (plastic) Binds to calcium to prevent clotting Light Blue 0.105 M Sodium citrate (3.2%) (glass) 0.129 M Sodium citrate (3.8%) (plastic) Binds to calcium to prevent clotting Green Sodium heparin Lithium heparin Inhibits thrombin formation to prevent clotting Gray Sodium fluoride- potassium oxalate Sodium fluoride Sodium fluoride-K 2 EDTA Inhibits glycolysis Binds calcium to prevent clotting Yellow Sodium polyanethol sulfate (SPS) Stabilizes bacterial growth Solution A: - 22 g/L Trisodium citrate - 8 g/L Citric acid - 24.5 g/L Dextrose Solution B - 13.2 g/L Trisodium sulfate - 4.8 g/L Citric acid - 14.7 g/L Dextrose Binds calcium to prevent clotting Royal Blue Sodium heparin Na 2 EDTA Binds to calcium to prevent clotting Red marbled gold Gel separator Clot activator Clot activator shortens time for clot formation Gel forms a barrier between cells and serum Light green marbled light green Gel separator Lithium heparin Heparin prevents clotting Gel separator prevents contamination Yellow marbled orange Thrombin Thrombin is a clot activator Tan Sodium heparin Inhibits thrombin formation Pink Spray-dried K 2 EDTA Binds calcium to prevent clotting COLOR CONSIDERATIONS USE Plain Red Clot formation in 30 minutes Blood chemistry, serology, blood banking Lavender Proper mixing by inverting tube 8x Blood cell counting Light Blue Proper mixing by inverting tube 3-4x Blood:anticoagulant ratio – 9:1 Coagulation studies Green Proper mixing by inverting tube 8x
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