topik3.pdf - EPPD 2023 Statistik untuk Ekonomi dan...

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EPPD 2023 Statistik untuk Ekonomi dan Perniagaan TOPIK 2: PERIHAL DATA STATISTIK (STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF DATA) Objektif Pembelajaran Menggambarkan data menggunakan ukuran kecenderungan memusat (central tendency) dan serakan (dispersion): Bagi set nilai data individu (individual data), dan Bagi set data terkumpul (grouped data). Menukar data kepada nilai terpiawai (standardized values). Mengguna komputer untuk mempersembah data secara visual. Mengguna pekali korelasi (coefficient of correlation) untuk mengukur hubungan antara dua pemboleh ubah kuantitatif. Terma Penting • Ukuran kecenderungan memusat, Pusat (center) Min (mean) µ , populasi; , sampel Min berwajar (weighted mean) • Median Mod (mode) (nota: perhatikan perbezaan) x
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• Ukuran serakan, Serakan/ sebaran Julat (range) Min sisihan mutlak (mean absolute deviation) Varian (variance) (Nota: perbezaan pengiraan antara 2 and s 2 ) Sisihan piawai (standard deviation) Julat antara kuartil (Interquartile range) Sisihan antara kuartil (Interquartile deviation) Pekali variasi (coefficient of variation) Terma Penting • Ukuran Posisi Relatif (Measures of Relative Position) • Kuantil (quantiles) – Kuartil Desil (deciles) Persentil (percentiles) • Residual (residuals) Nilai terpiawai (standardized values) • Ukuran hubungan (measures of association) Pekali Korelasi (coefficient of correlation, r Arah hubungan (direction): langsung ( r > 0) atau songsang ( r < 0) Kekuatan hubungan (strength): Apabila r hampir 1 atau –1, hubugan linear antara x and y adalah kuat (strong). Apabila r hampir 0, hubungan linear x dan y adalah lemah ( weak). Apabila r = 0, tiada hubungan antara x dan y . Pekali penentuan (coefficient of determination), r 2 Peratus jumlah variasi (variation) dalam y (pemboleh ubah bersandar) yang dijelaskan (is explained) oleh variasi dalam x (pemboleh ubah bebas) .
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Pusat (center): Min Min Purata Arithmatik (arithmetic average) = (jumlah semua nilai)/ # nilai »Populasi: µ = ( x i )/ N »Sampel: = ( x i )/ n Soalan: Hitung purata bilangan penghantaran dgn lori (average number of truck shipments) dari USA ke 5 bandar di Kanada (data dlm ribu guni): Montreal, 64.0; Ottawa, 15.0; Toronto, 285.0; Vancouver, 228.0; Winnipeg, 45.0 (jawapan: 127.4) x Pusat: Min Berwajar (Weighted Mean) Bila mempunyai data terkumpul, hitung min menggunakan rumusan µ = ( w i x i )/ w i Soalan: hitung purata untung (average profit) daripada penghantaran lori dari USA ke Kanada, bagi data berikut diberi dalam ribu guni dan untung bagi setiap ribu guni: Montreal 64.0 Ottawa 15.0 Toronto 285.0 $15.00 $13.50 $15.50 Vancouver 228.0 Winnipeg 45.0 $12.00 $14.00 (jawapan =8946/637= $14.04/ ribu guni) Ukuran Pusat: Median Untuk mencari median: 1. Letakkan data dalam susunan (array).
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  • Spring '18
  • PROF DR BASRI

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