Pathopharm Quiz 6.docx - Endocrine System A&P Endocrine...

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Endocrine System A&P Endocrine System : hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland and parathyroid glands, pancreas, gonads, pineal gland, thymus, local hormones 1. Consists of glands that secrete hormones 2. Maintains homeostasis using hormones as chemical messengers a. Responding to changes in internal environment 3. Hormone releases commonly controlled by negative feedback a. Shut down extra (too much) 4. One hormone can control another Regulatory functions of hormones : 1. Energy metabolism 2. Growth and development (growth hormone) 3. Muscle and fat distribution 4. Fluid and electrolytes balance (ADH) 5. Sexual development and reproduction Hypothalamus and pituitary gland: 1. Controls many other glands 2. Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones a. Directs anterior pituitary gland as to which hormones should be released 3. Posterior pituitary secretes stimulating hormones a. In response to nerve signals from hypothalamus Hormones : produced by the body, all of these 1. Produces in very small amounts 2. Secreted directly into the bloodstream 3. Travel to specific receptor sites 4. Increase or decrease metabolic processes 5. Immediately broken down Most often controlled by negative feedback mechanisms 1. Endocrine and nervous systems work together to regulate metabolic activities. 2. Complex system for some hormones 3. Secretion may be controlled by more than one mechanism. 4. Some hormones work antagonistically. 5. Rate and timing of secretion may vary. a. Cyclic patterns Hormone-receptor binding: 1. Hormones target tissues to increase or decrease their activity 2. Receptors w/in target tissues are needed for hormones to exert their influence 3. “Lock and key: hormone-receptor binding. Hormones are specific to their own receptors.
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Negative feedback examples Common for last hormone in a pathway to provide feedback: 1. I.e. serum Ca2+ decreases PTH is released a. PTH causes an increase in serum calcium b. Provides feedback to the parathyroid glands to shut off PTH secretion c. Helps to prevent excessive secretion of hormones, limiting their physiologic responses 2. I.e. hypothalamus senses low thyroid hormone level a. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is released by the hypothalamus, which affects the pituitary gland, and that causes the pituitary gland to secrete Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) b. In response to TSH, the thyroid gland increased production of T3/T4 hormones. c. The hypothalamus then senses the increased level of hormones, and stops its stimulation of the pituitary, and the pituitary stops its stimulation of the thyroid gland Major hormones and primary effects: nice to know????? (Hormones): (Source) => (Primary effects) 1. Growth Hormone: anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) => stimulates protein synthesis 2. Thyroid hormone (T3&T4): ...
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  • Spring '17
  • reed
  • Diabetes, i., thyroid gland

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