Heart failure 2017.pdf - HEART FAILURE Tricia Murray MSN...

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HEART FAILURE Tricia Murray, MSN, FNP-BC NUR226
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OBJECTIVES Students will understand the pathophysiology of heart failure Identify risk factors for developing heart failure Be able to identify characteristics of symptoms related to the two types of heart failure Understand treatment aims for heart failure Understand how medications used in the treatment of heart failure work to alleviate the signs/symptoms Identify the nurses role in assessment/management of clients with heart failure
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HEART FAILURE The term “heart failure” refers to a heart that is unable to pump effectively One of the most common and fatal cardiovascular diseases 1 in 5 patients with this diagnosis will die within 1 year of their diagnosis, and 70%-80% will die within 8 years
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ETIOLOGY Caused by any disorder that affects the heart’s ability to receive or eject blood Results in an inability to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body Coronary Artery Disease Mitral stenosis MI Chronic Hypertension (75%) Diabetes Mellitus Hyperthyroidism/Hypopthryroidism
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CARDIAC OUTPUT Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute. Two most important factors to cardiac output are preload and afterload Preload= the degree to which myocardial fibers are stretched after diastole Afterload= the degree of pressure in the aorta that must be overcome for blood to be ejected from the left ventricle
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CARDIAC OUTPUT (CONT) Contractility= the force in which the cardiac muscle fibers will contract In a normal heart, contractility increases with preload levels In a diseased heart, contractility cannot increase with preload levels, so may need medicaitons Positive inotropic medications= increase contractility Negative inotropic medications= decrease contractility Peripheral vascular resistance= force of the blood in the systemic circulation, which opposes the output from the left ventricle Increased peripheral vascular resistance (hypertension) makes it hard for the left ventricle to pump blood out to the body Decreased peripheral vascular resistance makes it easier for the left ventricle to pump blood to the body
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HEART FAILURE
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  • Spring '17
  • reed
  • left ventricle, right heart failure

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