ICT107 Topic 08 Lecture Slides 2017.pptx

ICT107 Topic 08 Lecture Slides 2017.pptx - Topic 8 Decision...

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Topic 8 Decision and Choice 1
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Learning outcomes - 1 After completing this topic, you should be able to: Explain why individuals and groups need to make decisions and identify the main themes involved in decision-making Describe the cognitive aspects of decisions and recognise the cognitive biases that can affect individual thinking and decision-making Identify the issues involved with decision-making in groups and describe some models and techniques for group decision-making Explain how uncertainty and risk affect decision-making 2
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Learning outcomes - 2 Distinguish between programmable and non- programmable decisions Describe several decision-making theories and approaches, including classical decision theory, behavioural approaches and multi-criteria decision-making Use different techniques to represent the logic of decisions (tutorials) Describe what needs to be done to automate the process of decision-making and describe some methods for decision support 3
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Reading ‘The Book of Informatics’, Chapter 7: Decision and Choice You can omit the following sections: The Monty Hall puzzle (p267-268) 7.5.6 Prediction 7.5.7 Strategic Decision Making You don’t need to remember the details of Processes for combining decisions (7.3.2), Framing techniques (Table 7.1 p260) or Matrices (7.5.4.1) You also don't need to remember the details of the different cognitive biases 4
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Overview Introduction The nature of decision – individuals The nature of decision – groups Uncertainty and risk Decision-making theories and approaches Methods of supporting decision-making Summary 5
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What did you have for breakfast this morning? What influenced your decision?
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What else did you decide today?
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Whether to get out of bed… What to wear… Whether to come to this lecture… Whether to try and get a close parking spot… Whether to throw out or recycle the drink cans… Which mobile phone to buy… Who to vote for in the guild/council election… Where to go on holiday… Whether to take that job you were offered… 8
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What factors affected your decision-making? Intuition Competing values Emotion Uncertainty Risk Calculation Morals Ethics Other people 9
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Introduction Decisions are a part of everyday life Decisions and judgements are made constantly, even subconsciously Decision-making applies to the most banal and the most important situations Decision-making involves choosing between alternatives Decisions can involve: Risk and uncertainty Multiple possible outcomes Competing values Other stakeholders 10
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The nature of decision Individuals Groups 1. Introduction 2. The nature of decision - individuals 3. The nature of decision - groups 4. Uncertainty and risk 5. Decision-making theories and approaches 6. Methods of supporting decision- making 7. Summary
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12 It’s much easier to just plain decide . Never mind – nothing is going to change your mind. I did that once when I was a student at MIT. I got sick and
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