Factory_Physics.pdf - FACTORY PHYSICS Foundations of...

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FACTORY PHYSICS Foundations of Manufacturing Management SECOND EDITION Wallace J. Hopp Northwestern University Mark L. Spearman Georgia Institute of Technology •Irwin ttifili McGraw-Hill Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto
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c H 7 7.1 Introduction A p T E R BASIC FACTORY DYNAMICS I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. Isaac Newton In the previous chapter, we argued that manufacturing management needs a science of manufacturing. In this chapter, we begin the process of fleshing out such a science by examining some basic behavior of production lines. To motivate the measures and mechanics on which we will focus, we begin with a realistic example. HAL, a computer company, manufactures printed-circuit boards (PCBs ), which are sold to other plants, where the boards are populated with components ("stuffed") and then sent to be used in the assembly of personal computers. The basic processes used to manufacture PCBs are as follows: 1. Lamination. Layers of copper and prepreg (woven fiberglass cloth impregnated with epoxy) are pressed together to form cores (blank boards). 2. Machining. The cores are trimmed to size. 3. Circuitize. Through a photographic exposing and subsequent etching process, circuitry is produced in the copper layers of the blanks, giving the cores "personality" (i.e., a unique product character). They are now called panels. 4. Optical test and repair. The circuitry is scanned optically for defects, which are repaired if not too severe. 5. Drilling. Holes are drilled in the panels to connect circuitry on different planes of multilayer boards. Note that multilayer panels must return to lamination after being circuitized to build up the layers. Single-layer panels go through lamination only once and do not require drilling or copper plating. 6. Copper plate. Multilayer panels are run through a copper plating bath, which deposits copper inside the drilled holes, thereby connecting the circuits on different planes. 213
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214 Part II Factory Physics 7. Procoat. A protective plastic coating is applied to the panels. 8. Sizing. Panels are cut to final size. In most cases, multiple PCBs are manufactured on a single panel and are cut into' individual boards at the sizing step. Depending on the size of the board, there could be as few as two boards made from a panel, or as many as 20. 9. End-of-line test. An electrical test of each board's functionality is performed.
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  • Spring '17
  • PATRICIA VALDIVIESO
  • Math, Cycle Time, Production line, Balanced line

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