Antipsychotics - Some notes.docx

Antipsychotics - Some notes.docx - ANTIPSYCHOTICS aka...

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ANTIPSYCHOTICS aka neuroleptics, major tranquilizers Schizophrenia / Psychosis • Dopamine Hypothesis: ↑ dopamine • Delusion, hallucination, thought disorders, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior, insomnia, combativeness • E.g. amphetamine, levodopa MOA: block the following receptors: dopamine - Parkinson-like symptoms cholinergic - reverse of DUMBBELSS adrenergic (a1) - hypotension Histamine – sedation Typical Antipsychotics Classic or old versions -> “- azines Phenothiazines Aliphatic -> with pro except prochlorperazine Piperidine -> with “ rid ”; piperacetazine Piperazine-> with “ phe ”; prochlor perazine; Trifluo perazine Thioxanthene -> with “ thixene Butyrophenones -> “ ridol Atypical Antipsychotics Newer versions With “- apine ”; “- idone ”; “- indole ” suffixes TYPICAL VS ATYPICAL Positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations & thought disorders Negative symptoms: withdrawal, blunted emotions & reduced ability to relate to people Extrapyramidal symptoms: involuntary movements, tremors & rigidity, body restlessness, muscle contractions & changes in breathing & HR Tardive dyskinesia: involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, & extremities Other uses: 1. Antiemetic - Prochlorperazine blocks dopamine receptors 2. Intractable hiccups - Chlorpromazine 3. Pruritus – aliphatic typical antipsychotics such as Promethazine (histamine blocker) Effects Dopamine receptor blockade is the major effect that correlates with therapeutic benefit for older antipsychotic drugs. Dopaminergic tracts in the brain include the: mesocortical-mesolimbic pathways (regulating mentation and mood) nigrostriatal tract (extrapyramidal function) tuberoinfundibular pathways (control of prolactin release) chemoreceptor trigger zone (emesis). Mesocortical-mesolimbic dopamine receptor blockade presumably underlies antipsychotic effects and a similar action on the chemoreceptor trigger zone leads to the useful
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  • Winter '10
  • Ms. Julea Moncera
  • Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, antipsychotic drugs, chemoreceptor trigger zone, dopamine receptor blockade

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